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HIS351 November 5 - The End of NEP and the Rise of Stalin

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Professor Bernstein

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HIS351 – November 5, 2012 1 Right Opposition  1927 War Scare o There was the fear of capitalist encirclement that had been prevalent since the Civil War  Surrounded by both real and not real enemies o All Russian Cooperative Society (ARCOS) Raid  Import British goods and export Soviet goods  Their offices were raided because the British thought they were messing around in the British trade union politics  Leads to tensions between the British and the Soviets  Lead to beliefs that there might be a war o Voikov was the ambassador to Poland and he was assassination by a Russian émigré  Revenge murder because he was part of the assassination of Nicholas II  Furthered the belief that there could be a war because Poland was allowing things like this to happen o United Front ends  United front tied China to the communists and then the communists were rounded up and murdered  War was not as imminent as it 'seemed' but it was publicly put forward that the Russian nation needed to prepare for war  Was embraced by those in the party classified as rank-and-file  Those who aren't really pro-Soviet were more fearful of what would happen to them than caring about the actual war  Though war wasn't imminent in 1927, there was still the belief that the capitalists were out to get them  Trotsky promoted that there was a war scare was the failure of the Comintern shown through the failure of the United Front  Stalin promoted that there were too many other things to worry about o There were too many opponents when unity was needed o By opposing the party, Trotsky was labelling himself as a traitor  Effects of the war scare o Stalin promotes the need for solidarity  Can't be divided because there are too many external enemies o Shows that the Soviet Union needs industry to get going  If there really was a war the ability of the S.U. to finance an army was questionable o Soviet discourse starts to transfer economic greiviances onto 'enemies' of the state  1928 +, Soviet leaders 'go after' these groups  Shakty trial, 1928  Accused of sabotage  Intentionally keeping down production on behalf of the foreign powers  The party was no longer pushing for class peace, it was a time where class distinctions became more distinct because the state is no longer intervening HIS351 – November 5, 2012 2  This is a watershed moment where it is understood that the bourgious can once again be persecuted  Kulaks  They become enemies of the state  Hatred toward them became more prevalent during collectivization  NEPmen became persecuted somewhat  They were cracked down on despite their work once being legalized  Overall shift away from class peace  Shows that there was both external and internal enemies of the state  Whether they were actually enemies of state created enemies is up for debate  Grain Crisis o Fall 1927: Poor marketing  Hoarding 1. Low prices, not enough to buy 2. War scare creating instability  Scissors effect o Solutions  Raise prices  Confront kulak o New conception of class warfare  Development of repression o CC leaders monitor 1928 harvest  Stalin in Siberia  Kulaks are anti-soviet and the leaders arent doing enough  The grain crisis is an economic revolt, it needs to be stopped because it’s a threat to the revolution o "Ural-Siberian method" = basically Stalin sent people into the countryside to find grain and make those hoarding it suffer  Increased coercion  Searches for grain  Obstacles to market  Find grain and peasants hoarding grain kinda stops o City vs. countryside  Its not just an economic or political battle but it's a cultural battle  The city is imposing how to live on the countrysid
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