HIS361 Lecture 4 Feb 1 2013
The Holocaust in Western Europe: Different, Similar, and Connected to the East:
Anne frank – fled Nazis to the Netherlands. Came from Germany.
Often used to talk about heroism, the Dutch rescue etc.
Refugees in the Netherlands, the Dutch community existing well with Christians felt in siege.
What were they to do with these people
They worried that incoming Jews would attract anti-semantism which it did.
It put a burden on a community under extreme stress. Said we can’t accommodate these
people. The problem extended to gentiles and to Jews.
Created a disruption of solidarity. Became much worse as resources were restricted.
Foreign Jews and Jewish refugees are a big connection between the East and West.
In France, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Denmark, Norway, Belgium etc. the number of Jews in all
these put together would not exceed 600. In the early 1940s there were hundreds of thousands
after all the refugees fled in.
French Jews with local networks and what that could mean for their survival.
Alsace- Lorraine – territories that moved back and forth between German and French control.
France claimed back after WW1
Population was ethnically mixed French German. With the fall of France the first thing Germany
did was instill germanification measures
They expelled the Jews very early on there, as well as Roma.
Unlike Helene Berr, Jeanine Schwartz had to flee very early on. She and her family were expelled
By 1942 she was already quite used to living outside the law. (Jeanine Schwartz = grandma of
Born in prague in 1932. Jewish parents. Only child. His parents tried to free from Czech Slovakia
They were turned back at the border of Austria. The succeeded a second time and went to
Were among the many foreign Jews living in France. Illegal existence, trying to find out how to
improve their chances of making it through the war.
In 1941, they thought