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Lecture 4

HIS361 Lecture 4 Feb 1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Doris Bergen

HIS361 Lecture 4 Feb 1 2013 The Holocaust in Western Europe: Different, Similar, and Connected to the East:  Anne frank – fled Nazis to the Netherlands. Came from Germany.  Often used to talk about heroism, the Dutch rescue etc.  Refugees in the Netherlands, the Dutch community existing well with Christians felt in siege. What were they to do with these people  They worried that incoming Jews would attract anti-semantism which it did.  It put a burden on a community under extreme stress. Said we can’t accommodate these people. The problem extended to gentiles and to Jews.  Created a disruption of solidarity. Became much worse as resources were restricted.  Foreign Jews and Jewish refugees are a big connection between the East and West.  In France, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Denmark, Norway, Belgium etc. the number of Jews in all these put together would not exceed 600. In the early 1940s there were hundreds of thousands after all the refugees fled in.  French Jews with local networks and what that could mean for their survival.  Alsace- Lorraine – territories that moved back and forth between German and French control. France claimed back after WW1  Population was ethnically mixed French German. With the fall of France the first thing Germany did was instill germanification measures  They expelled the Jews very early on there, as well as Roma.  Unlike Helene Berr, Jeanine Schwartz had to flee very early on. She and her family were expelled and fled.  By 1942 she was already quite used to living outside the law. (Jeanine Schwartz = grandma of student) Saul Friedlander:  Born in prague in 1932. Jewish parents. Only child. His parents tried to free from Czech Slovakia  They were turned back at the border of Austria. The succeeded a second time and went to France.  Were among the many foreign Jews living in France. Illegal existence, trying to find out how to improve their chances of making it through the war.  In 1941, they thought
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