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Lecture 11

HIS 377 Lecture 11 Week 11 March 28th, 2013 - Ford, Carter and Reagan.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Professor Candace Sobers

HIS 377 – 20 Century American Foreign Relations Lecture 11 Week 11 March 28th, 2013 From Reagan to the End of the Cold War o “The Age of Dissonance” Ford and Carter o “Morning Again in America” The Reagan Revolution o Confronting the “Evil Empire” (and everybody else) o “Tearing Down Walls” The Reagan Reversal o Conclusion: “The End of History?” o “The Age of Dissonance” Ford and Carter o There were tense social conditions – liberal civil rights movements and conservative back lashes o Ford is never elected to VP or President, he is chosen after Nixon and Agnew resign o Pleasant man, soft spoken, and affable – people thought he was stupid, but he wasn’t o Had a habit of saying the wrong things and having them taken out of context o “A Ford, not a Lincoln” He meant that he was a dependable Ford car, not a shiny Lincoln continental  Taken out of context and as a comparison to Abe Lincoln o He pardons Richard Nixon – this infuriated everyone – his approval ratings dropped 20 points in one week o Helsinki Accord 1975:  Began at Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) 1973 o Basket 1:  Recognized existing frontiers in Europe (ended WW2) o Basket 2:  Increased trade o Basket 3:  Human rights th o Halloween Massacre – Nov 4 , 1975:  Made VP Nelson Rockefeller take himself off of the presidential ticket  Fired DCI Colby, hired George H. W. Bush  Fires NSA Kissinger, hired Brent Scowcroft  Fired SecDef Schlesinger, hired Donald Rumsfeld  Hired new WH Chief of Staff Dick Cheney o Ford defeats Reagan for the Republican nomination, narrowly, but loses the election o Jimmy Carter:  Born again Baptist, and a surprise winner  Very morally grounded – was more of a domestic President  Carter’s two men, Vance and Brzezinski hate each other o Carter Wins:  Panama Canal • Riots in 1960s, LBJ takes first steps to share power – goes poorly • 1974, Kissinger seeks to restore sovereignty to the Panamanians – goes poorly • The canal is useless now, its more symbolic than anything as the US has a two ocean navy • Carter hashes out a deal to return the canal – Reagan claimed America built and paid for it and they should keep it, called it appeasement • Carter stood in the rain to sign the agreement, and that was symbolic and important for the Latin Americans – Carter was willing to lower himself and show his humbleness  Camp David Accord • Sept 17, 1978 • Secret meetings between the Arabs • Sign a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt -Israel would withdraw from the Sinai and in return they would be granted diplomatic recognition • The second agreement – didn’t go as well, but the Israelis and Egyptians agreed to talk again in the future  Normalization with the PRC: • Carter completes normalization with China • Carter had to do the work to make it happen – it works out very well and Mao is dead – much easier to work with his replacement Deng Xiaoping • US decides it will export stuff to China, and this is a boom for the Chinese market o Carter Losses:  South Africa: • Carter is against the apartheid – he grew up in the segregated south and saw the devastation of it • Carter revokes the Bird amendment • Despite all of his anti-apartheid talk, he never cuts off relations with South Africa  Cambodia: • Murderous dictator in power, Carter never stops supporting Cambodia • The major reason was because they weren’t communist and that was a good enough reason  Iran: • Considered an island of stability up until this point • The Shah tried to westernize way too quickly, militarized the society and their was religious tension • The Shah and Carter get along really well – he comes to the US in the mid 1970s, greeted with hostility by protestors • Khomeini begins the revolution • Vance was opposed to the use of force • Brzezinski opposes any deals he sees with religious fanatics – wants to use military force to keep the Shah in power • Its too late, the revolution is too far in, the Shah is forced to flee, he goes to the US • Carter lets the Shah in, who is dying of cancer, for treatment – this outrages the Iranians who attack the embassy and take many American hostages • This was a television crisis – television event of the entire year • Vance resigns after the revolution  US - Soviet Relations • SALT II negotiations begin with Ford and Brezhnev – come to an agreement about nuclear launches – agree on having the same number of weapons • When Carter comes in it should have been easy, in 1979 when SALT II was in the Senate for ratification, the Soviet Union invades Afghanistan • In December of 1978 the Soviet Union and Afghanistan sign a treaty of mutual defence – allows the Afghan government to ask the Soviet Union for help if needed o There was a Marxist and secular government forming • The Marxist government requested Soviet intervention in Afghanistan – Soviets debated whether to respond or not • In late December the Soviet Union invades Afghanistan • Brzezinski thought it would be best to arm the opponents of Afghanistan • Carter Doctrine created – anyone who invades the Persian gulf risks the wrath of the US o Morning Again in America  Ronald Reagan is elected – he wants the US to feel good about itself
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