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Lecture 5

HIS 377 Lecture 5 Week 5 Feburary 7th, 2013 - WW2 and the Postwar World.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Professor Candace Sobers

HIS 377 – 20 Century American Foreign Relations Lecture 5 Week 5 February 7th, 2013 Ending WW2 and Post WW2 o Ending the War in Asia: o Hungarian scientist aware that if you could split an atom you could release a tremendous amount of energy o Einstein writes to FDR o By 1939 the bomb is being considered and developed – USSR working towards one o There is an argument that if Germany didn’t surrender they would have tried the bomb on them o Why in Asia?  Primary goal, end the war with as few American casualties as possible  There are already plans for Operation Downfall (Pacific version of DDAY)  Pro-war General Douglas McArthur projected around 100k casualties – even he saw that it would be grim  The Americans were also afraid of “Soviet” liberation – they feared more Soviet satellites being created as the Soviets pushed East  They Americans spent so much money and time building the bomb, they had to use it – they couldn’t sit on it without actually trying it – needed justification • What if it came out that Truman had the bomb and didn’t use it – he would have been lambasted for a long time for being “cowardly”  Japan began sending out peace feelers to weaker or neutral countries in an effort to bring a more reasonable peace for Japan • This was the diplomatic, not the military side of the government and the military side of the government had control at this point  There is a belief that the Japanese would fight until their death causing many more casualties than necessary o Potsdam:  Americans send Japan a message threatening complete and utter destruction unless they unconditionally surrender – doesn’t mention the bomb, but it suggests a devastating threat – Japan ignores it, they see it as humiliating  The SU kept its Yalta promise and invaded Manchuria on August 9th  Fat man was dropped on Nagasaki on August 9th, 35k died  The Japanese don’t formally surrender until September 2 , 1945 • There was intense debate over what to do and this evidence defends the theory that the Japanese would have fought until their death  Hiroshima and Negasaki were largely industrial targets, but they also had large civilian populations and the bomb was a form of psychological warfare – they wanted to terrify the Japanese o Reconstructing Europe and Japan: o Germany:  There was a belief that the German people were hijacked by a lunatic, whereas the Japanese were ALL in on it  There was a need to harness the industrial capacity of Germany  The initial plans for Germany were to scale back the nazification, the military and then to rebuild its industrial potential  Morgenthau Plan (1944) • This plan sought to destroy the industrial capacity and turn Germany into an agrarian society • The news leaked on it and it was received negatively – it made the Germans fight harder  JCS 1067 • Early plans for dealing with Germany • No assistance to Germany from the US  JCS 1779 • An orderly and prosperous Europe needs a strong and industrial Germany  The Fives D’s • Denazification • Demilitarization • Division o The four zones + Berlin zones • Democratization o The idea that Germany had to be de-Prussianized o Began to teach civics, American radio, literature, culture and the Americans controlled movies • De-cartelization o Japan:  Demilitarization • Belief that the Japanese were all warlike, but not true – Teddy Roosevelt liked the Japanese and considered them the foreigners he liked the most  Democratization • Wanted to rid Japan of its fascist government • The emperor was stripped of his power – lost his sovereignty • Constitution of 1947 o Article IX o House of representatives  Social + Economic reforms • De-cartelization (Zaibatsu) – take apart the enormous industrial conglomerates – doesn’t work so well • Wanted to change the culture so they were more like the Americans, women’s rights, property rights, divorce, lower voting age, institutionalize freedom of religion, restructure education to be more American, etc  They want to make democracy more secure by making wealth more accessible by all o Europe:  European Recovery Plan • US had to economically help rebuild Europe or else there was a fear of a communist takeover • Heavily influenced by Kennan  Secretary of State George C Marshall (replaced by Byrnes)  13 billion in aid via the Marshall Plan  SU rejects the Marshall Plan  Marshall won the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts  Lessons: • US can and should try to help other states be more like them o Germany has their economic miracle • A technocratic (sending specialists in to fix a problem) approach to fixing a state is the best approach o Recognizing Israel: o Brief History:  Under Ottoman rule until WW1  Becomes British mandate  Balfour declaration suggests the idea of a Jewish homeland near Palestine  Region is divided – British are divided over the whole issue  The White Paper in 1939 tries to limit Jewish immigration  Arabs are upset, still has the British meddling in their affairs  By the end of WW2 the UN has a problem – many misplaced Jews – no state can or will accept the number of Jewish refuge
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