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Lecture 7

HIS 377 Lecture 7 Week 7 February 28th 2013 - Eisenhower Administration.doc

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Professor Candace Sobers

HIS 377 – 20 Century American Foreign Relations Lecture 7 Week 7 February 28th, 2013 Waging Peace – Eisenhower Confronts the Cold War o RECAP: o Expansion (empire) o Power o Order o Uniqueness o Cold War Themes: o US-Soviet Tensions o Nuclear World o Renewed Geopolitics o Rise of the Third World  US cant see the difference between nationalism and communism  US feels the need to steer undeveloped countries towards their path o Liking Ike: The Eisenhower Administration o Eisenhower is a republican from Kansas o Supreme Commander Allied Forces Europe during WW2 under Democrats o Won 1952 election in a landslide o Re-elected in 1956 o The republicans still had an isolationist flair, but that was irrelevant as the US had to step up to the plate now o Eisenhower was the perfect person to shape post war America as he had fought the wars o Nixon was his Vice President o John Foster Dulles was his Secretary of State  “Bull that carries around his own china shop” o Eisenhower purposely chose these two as they were loud and controversial o From National Security State to “New Look” o Truman:  National Security Act, 1947  NATO, 1949  Truman Doctrine, 1950  NSC-68, 1950 • There is a fear that the proposed changes in NSC-68 could bankrupt the country – they were far too large • They put nuclear weapons on par with conventional weapons o Eisenhower and the “New Look” (NSC 162/2)  The new look sought to reduce conventional forces and to build up a massive nuclear arsenal  Three Components of the New Look: • Massive Retaliation and MAD • Eisenhower had concluded that it would be cheaper to build up the nuclear arsenal than it would be to build up the conventional army o They had to convince the Soviet Union that they would use their nuclear arsenal • System of Alliances o NATO o SEATO o Baghdad Pact in response to Nassir • Covert Action o Cheap, no invasion, no declaration, plausible deniability, no congress, etc o Confronting Nationalism: o The “Spirit of Bandung”  April 18-24, 1955  29 countries + observers  10 point Declaration  Led to creation of the Non-Alignment Movement, Belgrade, 1961  US were invited and they declined  US declines as they support independence, but most of their allies have colonial interests and they have their own domestic racial problems to contend with  The US was also very racist at this time and labelled many of the third world countries seeking independence as communist o The CIA and Covert Action: Iran, Guatemala and Congo  Iran: • Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) • Mohammed Mossadeq wants to nationalize the AIOC • Mossadeq is eventually replaced and a pro-western individual is placed in power • Op TX/AJAX • Baghdad Pact (1955) • The lesson of the Iranian Covert Operation was that covert worked and that it was cheap due to the relative success they had in Iran  Guatemala: • US has no problems getting involved in South America – falls under the Monroe Doctrine • The United Fruit Company pretty much ran Guatemala and they dominated the country – built roads, infrastructure and even ran the postal service – largest employer in the country and had Alan Dulles as a board of director – John Foster Dulles law firm represents the company • Jacobo Arbenz Guzman nationalizes the land and pays the company based on what their tax returns had stated – UFC had been lying and wanted 17 million instead of the 600k • They label Arbenz as a communist because he redistributed land • Alan Dulles called him a communist beachhead in the Western hemisphere • They initiate operation PBSUCCESS – they train Nicaragua men and invade Guatemala – Arbenz is forced to step down or fear death • Castillo Armas comes to power • Covert action seems like a valid option for change again except there was blowback from PBSUCCESS • Nixon goes on a goodwill tour to Latin America and he was attacked while touring Venezuela – he goes back to Washington and the Americans learn that there was some idea that they were involved  Congo: • The Congo Crisis takes place in 1961 •
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