Class his278 Jan 23, 2014
I. introduction: the problem of the “color Line”
II. “A dream Deferred”: Civil Rights
III. A different dream? Black nationalism
I. The problem of the color line
Civil war and reconstruction
o 13 , 14 amendments
o “Jim Crow”
Plessey v. Ferguson
o Separate but equal
The color line, panAfricanism, and early civil rights—W.E.B. Du Bois
Cithl War 18641865: based on two principles—focuses on blacks and slavery
14 amendment that means everyone born in US is a citizen
racial segregation strongest on the South
II. A Dream Deferred: civil Rights
“Harlem” By Langston Hughes
National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP)
Greensboro sitins, 1960
Freedom Rides begin, 1961
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 1963
Voting Rights Act, 1964
Civil Rights Act, 1965
Martin Luther King actually born Michael but changes names after journey to
Europe, born into middle class family, got degree and became preacher (?) at age
25. Religion is very important to him. Believes in liberation theology
King influenced by Gandhi—all about civil disobedience, boycotts, freedom rides
Emmett Till, 1955 from the North, goes down to see cousins in Missipi, accused of
flirting with white women, he was 14 years old. He was set upon by the KKK.
“whistling at white women”. these white men beat him to death, using wires and
then hide his body. But different because his mother from the north actually
pblishes his photo, and helps to inspire the civil rights movement. Made all the
front covers of black newspapers.
Greensboro(1960): four black students sit down at a café where they are not
allowed. No one serves them so they come back the next day. By the end of the
week more then 1000 students across the united states partaking in sitins.
Hostile crowd although some did support or come sit down with them.
As a result they get wolwork (a chain store) to change their policies.
The students that formed and partook in it come together to form SNIK. – younger
then Martin –Luther’s. Primarily students and more diverse some whites etc)
Marion Berry—they take more risks… more assertive. Formation of SNIK heats up issue a bit more and their focus is on voting rights and
getting them to sign up
CORE and SNIK launch freedom rides. So they focus on interstate travel. First
freedom rides leaves Washington DC on _________. Travel in interracial group.
When starting out they don’t have many problems, but when they reach Alabama
things get worse. KKK meets them at the station, they are attacked, beaten and
carry on to Aniston, and the bus is firebombed.
When reports of the Freedom riders hit Washington, Kennedy has to figure out what
to do—and he urges the freedom riders to stop, and sends troops to escort the bus
the rest of the way.
Freedom rides continue for the entire year… a couple legacy’s come out of it:
o Anger about the fact that Kennedy is not taking action
o Encourages others to participate in civil rights movement
o Also see larger white resistance movement
James Meredith sighs up for the White university of Mississippi. Two people die in
riots, and Troops come in, so that Meredith can attend school for a year eventually
1963 important—Birmingham, Alabama—pivotal year because its been 100 years