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Lecture 6

HIS385 Lecture 6 (28 Feb 2014)-2.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Carol Chin

Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong - Significant improvements between 1910s-1930s o Japanese occupation (1941-45) disrupted process of progressive change - Physical developments - 1000 km squared added - Kowloon from periphery (military) to center (trade) – full use of harbor – 1902 bridge proposal - 1903 proposal to develop Kowloon and NT - Land reclamation projects - 1916 residential development on Kai Tak land - 1927 + development of airport - 1930: cross-harbor pipeline for NT fresh water to HK Is. - Reflected an increase in population with this development and fresh water. - Port developments - Star Ferry (1898),, Yaumati Ferry (1924) - 1908: Taikoo Dockyard Co. (Butterfield and Swire Co—company also super important for sugar) in Quarry Bay - deep water wharves, cargo sheds, warehouses for ocean-going steamers – deepening of approaches to piers - 1915: typhoon shelter in Kowloon (in the south west part of the peninsula) most typhoon shelters would actually be constructed after post world one period. But some were constructed before. What were they used for? To protect the ships and small to medium sized boats that provide protection during the monsoon season. (large ships probably did not need these protections). – not a shelter per se but more like a cove with an artificially made embankment that protects against high waves etc - Japanese expansion in China th - Mukden Incident, September 1931 September 18 - Northeast provinces - Puppet state Manchukuo, 1932. - Who was put in place as first emperor: the last emperor of the chin dynasty. And from 1931 onwards Japanese began to expand south and by 1937 full scale war would break out between china and japan. o Full scale war, 1937 1 o Fall of Canton, 1938: Japanese took control of city of Canton, would have major impact on Hong Kong who was located near by. - Effects on Hong Kong o Refugee influx  Population 1 million to 1.6 million (1938-1941) --- during occupation this number would begin to fall  Limited accommodations, rets to increase food shortages  Social problems and economic problems o HK as cultural capital (Shanghai)  Shanghai scholars- newspaper and magazines and publications began to increase.: Intellectual scholars based in Shanghai to flea the city to go to Hong Kong: major thinkers and leaders for Chinese culture and activities - Anti-Japanese sentiments/resistance o Sojourner mentality o Chinese merchants’relief association, women’s military disaster association – fund raising o Weapons, oil smugglers into china o HK Chinese in anti-Japanese war (many young Hong Kong Chinese- particularly fought around Kowloon). - HK’s economy, 1937-1941: absence of competition o China-outside connections cut off (Shanghai, Tianjin, Qingdao/Tsingtao) o HK as only outlet for seaborne trade o HK linked occupied China and free china o But still affected by war - British neutrality in China-Japan conflict o Preoccupation with Europe (focusied more in Europe) o British invincibility inAsia o Ego!! Britain is the strongest European power inAsia, and is convinced that they are far too superior against the Japanese and thus they would not dare to threat the British influence inAsia. (Mentality). – Did not expect Japanese to attack the British interests in Asia. o 1937+: full scale Japanese invasion, fall of Canton: but by late 1930’s British will have to change their perspective and standpoint as the Japanese encroach on Hong Kong “If Japan goes to war with us there is not the slightest chance of holding Hong Kong or relieving it. It is most unwise to increase the loss we shall suffer there. Instead of increasing the garrison it ought to be reduced to a symbolic scale. …” (Winston Churchill, January 7, 1941) - Br. view: HK as un-defendable outpost 2 - Evacuation of European women and children, summer 1941. - Japanese expansion beyond mainland China o “Asia for Asians” – governments by local leaders o “Greater Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” o Autarkic (meaning self-sufficient)Asian bloc free of western powers o In order to establish this the Japanese had to gain access to areas where they could gain materials needed to produce war materials o War material: oil, rubber o So where to they go? Indo-China (rubber), Malaysia (oil), Philippines (rice and rubber), Indonesia (oil) – who will they be targeting, which western countries will they target in order to gain control of these locations: Britain (Malaysia being British colony),Americans (Philippines), and Dutch in Indonesia). - Japanese war withA, B, C, D o Americans, British, Chinese, Dutch o US led embargo, 1940 o Pearl Harbor, Dec 7, 1941 o Attacks on Hong Kong, Malaya and Philippines, Dec 8,
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