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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Founding of Crown Colony.docx

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Chin Lim

HIS385 Lecture 2 JAN17/2014 Cont. of Prehistory - Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) • Xin-an (New Peace) county • Kowloon Bay  salt production for the whole empire • Pearls at Tolo Harbour • Remnants of a building foundation dating to the Ming dynasty  possible gov’t for administration reason - Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) • Established by the Manchu’s from NE China  not ethnic Chinese o Manchu from Manchuria faced opposition from ethnic Chinese who remain loyal to Ming o Used strategies to suppress opposition  cut off supplies, which pushed the ethnic Chinese south o Rebels became pirates along the south China coast • To get rid of rebels/pirates, Qing issued a coastal evacuation (1660s-1670s) o Southern coast became vacant; people move inland after 1670s, allowed to return  others from central China also moved south • Original people + Hakka “guest people” o Hakka helped spread “Chinese” ~ migration spurred by the British empire  labour, plantation, mines (cheap labour) • Fishing, farming villages o Single surname villages  patrilineal  “Chan” or “Wong” villages, for example – all male descendant from the same ancestor from the original inhabitants o Multi-surname villages  Possible inhabitants were immigrants  shorter history because they were recent inhabitants  Different immigrants who flocked together and created their own village o Similar land structures in villages  Walled , to protect from pirates  Dykes, embankments, terraces, land reclamation (shatin) o People engaged in trade in the coasts, periodic markets likened to out farmer’s markets where they bring their produce  Located in Cheung Chan, Taipo o HK island ceded in 1841 - HK wasn’t an unpopulated area when the British arrived Founding of a Crown Colony “Hong Kong became a British colony as a result of the Opium War.” - Partly correct, partly wrong  the Opium War played a part, but wasn’t the central reason - Worldviews  Trade  War  Colony • Sino-centric worldview, circa 19 century o As far as China was concerned, they were the civilized nation o They were the Celestial Dynasty – “all under Heaven”  The emperor was therefore the ruler of all o This view not based on the western concept of nationalism – no nation state at this time  Based instead on culture o Culture as identity – culturalism  Confucianism = civilized  If not part of the same culture = barbarian o Chinese vs. Barbarians 1  There are those that are in the middle – not Chinese but decided to accept the superiority of China and the Confucian culture  seen as less barbaric, civilized, allowed to interact with the Chinese (tributary state); protection and trade  “trade” deemed a privilege by China  need to express loyalty and inferiority and to accept the superiority/dominance of China and the emperor in order to trade o Regardless of status in one’s culture, foreigners are not equal to the Chinese emperor – at best, a president/prime minister/king would be regarded as the emperor’s younger brother, never his equal • Eurocentric worldview, circa 19 century o Each nation state was unique  nationalism o Nation-state as identity o Relations between equals  rulers as rulers; no sense of inferiority o “trade” simply an activity between individuals who wants to trade – no need to stoop low and acknowledge the other’s superiority • Two worldviews were drastically different  leads to an inevitable crash th th • Globalization of trade, 16 -18 century o “globalization” = actual trade of goods  Physical transaction  Nowadays, its more virtual (transaction of money) o Portugal, Spain, Britain, Netherlands initiated globalization of trade o When they went to Asia, they had certain products in mind not found in Europe  Spices – to preserve food (i.e. salt)  Souls – spread of beliefs/religion; looked to convert people o Imperialism: control source in order to have a stable supply  Became a prestigious deed  Brought wealth, use to express the superiority of the nation (power)  Civilizing mission – “save” the people (barbarians?) by converting them o Europeans took resources, invested in control and infrastructure, and saved/converted the inhabitants o Post-WW2: great shift in mentality  Brits not proud of being called imperialist • Westerner’s restricted presence in China o Portuguese: earliest to trade with China (1500s)  Used Macau as base for trading o Europeans in China had to follow certain rules o Canton Trade System (1757) – used to facilitate trade with the Europeans  China didn’t care for foreign goods since sino-centric view tells them that China has everything they need but at the same time, they can’t leave the Europeans to “die off” because China refused to trade  Europeans not used to the Chinese trade system  worked differently from their own  Canton trade system based in the port of Canton (Guangzhou)  The only place they were allowed to trade  Added numerous restrictions  Only allowed to stay during trading season (recall: seasonal trade because of summer and winter monsoons)  Not allowed to venture outside of the port (area of trade) they were permitted to be in (i.e. Canton)  Only permitted to trade with a restricted number of Chinese merchants called cohong (Canton Trade System = Cohong Trade System) - Cohong responsible for trade aspect and communication between European traders and Chinese gov’t 2 - Foreign merchants not allowed to talk to Chinese gov’t – they must present petition indicating the problem, cohong reads it over and present it to local officials who will then decide or pass it on higher officials, where it can be pass all the way to the emperor – process very long - Communication = cumbersome; by the time a decision could be reach, foreign traders would need to leave (communication can take months) - They wont help unless it would benefit them  resolution of problems becomes expensive - Foreign merchants willing to subject themselves to humiliation because the reward (trade)was worth it in Europe  Asian products gives them more profit once in Europe  Europeans subject to Chinese laws - They were uncomfortable with Chinese laws especially their inhumane punishments (i.e. slice to death, limbs pulled by horses, etc.) - However uncomfortable, they were forced to follow  Lasted until the end of the Opium War o Trade part of tribute system  Europeans disliked it especially kowtow-ing (to show inferiority) in front of the emperor ~ sign of submission • Industrial Revolution, late 18 - 19 century o Europeans didn’t care about the laws because they’d make a lot of money  until the Industrial Revolution came o Industrial Revolution gave the British the ability to mass produce
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