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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Entrepot of Trade, People, and Ideas.docx

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Chin Lim

HIS385H Lecture 4 JAN31/2014 Cont. from last week Community leadership in Hong Kong - 1840s: smugglers - 1860s: merchants replaced smugglers in leadership • They used their wealth to established community institutions, charity, etc. in order to acquire power, influence • Therefore, WEALTH  CHARITY  POWER  PRESTIGE Interlocking Memberships - Board of directors of organizations - Confirmation of Status - Colonial recognition Recognition by colonial government - 1880: 1 Chinese elected in the Legislative Council - 1900: 16 Chinese elected in the Legislative Council - Influence limited on Chinese affairs • No colony-wide influence • Provide only advice pertaining to Chinese population in Hong Kong Social Status - Collaboration with Chinese leaders and the west  access to the West for the Chinese • Chinese: obtained useful command of the English language • Later generations (children of leaders) have access to Western-style education (i.e. missionary schools) then overseas education to pursue higher education (university) o Become expose to non-traditional Chinese culture; more acquainted with the ways of the West o When they go back, they replace their fathers as community leaders o New leaders, then, become bilingual and bicultural  Improved relations with the Europeans  More willing to accept non-Chinese ideas, more open to implementing Western ideas Entrepot of Trade, People and Ideas - “Entrepot” = a place where goods enter and exit • A port that facilitates goods  not intended to stay in the port, only passing through as a means to transfer to its final destination o Essentially, a trading port • Stretching the definition  can apply to the migration of people in and out of Hong Kong, as well as the exchange of ideas from in and out of Hong Kong British Empire - “Empire over which the sun never sets” - Have settlement colonies, colonies for resources/market for British goods - Colonies, like Hong Kong, as trading posts to facilitate trade with other countries • HK not meant as a settlement colony and can’t be a resource colony since the only natural resource HK has was the deep harbour in Victoria Harbour • As a result, HK was used as a trading port to facilitate Sino-British trade - HK as British headquarters: East Asian Trade • Regional base for others (non-British traders, i.e. other Western traders) - The existence of the deep harbour helped Hong Kong prosper (?) Free Port, 1841 - Encourage people to use HK as a port - Gov’t of HK did not impose import/export tax on goods  lots of traders saw it as an attractive feature of HK, so they began flocking to HK to use it as a port - “Free port” = open to all, including non-British • The most important economic principle that help to facilitate economic improvement (?) Entrepot Trade: Transhipment point - A point connecting two destination: where goods were manufactured/produced to where goods are bought & consumed - China trade: tea, silk, etc. shipped to HK  stored in warehouses  packed for long voyage to Europe - Regional trade: SE Asians trade with Japan and Korea  use HK as a transhipment port - International trade: learned from the West  begins to set up their own trading network Entrepot Trade Boom, 1870 + - Entrepot boomed in 1870 because it’s a free port and the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 - Establishment of telegraph lines, 1871  new way of communication: HK Shanghai Europe - Links  trade + financial network - Large growth because of the Suez Canal • Before the Suez Canal, it took a minimum of 6 months to a year of travel from Europe to HK o Needed to circumvent Africa, across the Indian Ocean, etc. o Long voyage, so small ships were used, therefore small volume of goods they can carry there and back • Suez Canal provided a shortcut, takes less time (less 3-4 months?) o Shorter voyage, bigger ships, therefore more goods can be carried there and back - The ability to communicate can help the development of business - Creation of a stronger trade and financial link/network Benefits of British Jurisdiction - HK = British colony, therefore, British laws applied there • The only place with close proximity to China that British laws were applicable • For European merchants, they preferred a place with British laws  more familiarity with the laws, therefore preferred to base their businesses in HK - Shanghai was a major port in Asia, as well (rivals HK), but it wasn’t under British jurisdiction ~ it was under China’s • Because of this, Europeans preferred HK - HK Chinese traders also benefitted • British legal protection  British laws in HK meant to protect British traders primarily, but Chinese in HK enjoyed similar protection because they’re IN Hong Kong • Parallel Trade networks o Chinese traders prefer HK than other ports o Chinese traders interact with European merchants in HK  learning from European trade networks, leading to the creation of their own trade and financial networks o European and Chinese trade networks co-existing (?) … parallel? o European trade networks  efficient, led to prosperity Emergence of Related Services - 1841-1950: main economic sector = Entrepot trade - 1950: Korean War  collapsed of the entrepot trade - But there were other economic sectors, businesses related to the entrepot trade • SHIPPING o Jardine Matheson, 1832  Heavily related with opium and the Opium War  Expanded business legally into shipping; transferring his own goods and then later transferring goods from smaller businesses unable to get their own ships o Dent & Co, 1824 2 o Peninsula & Oriental (P&O), 1845  Carried mail between Europe and Asia  Evolved shipping services for other companies o Butterfield & Swire, 1870  Based in HK, established by British o Jardine, Dent, Peninsula, and Butterfield were all owned by Westerners  British dominated shipping services o HK Chinese firms, 1870s  Offered services to Chinese companies  Learned from Westerners  Competed with British-established shipping companies • Storage facilities: goods needed to be stored… where? o Big companies have their own warehouses o Small companies needed to use the services of HK & Kowloon Wharf Co., 1886 • Ship Repairing business o New technology available in Europe but not in Asia  1 introduced in HK? o Creation of a dry dock, 1870s  Can drain the water from the dock, completely in order to repair the ships o Prosperous business considering all the ships that enter HK • Banking: HK and Shanghai Bank, 1865 o To trade, needed a very sizable amount of capital o Banks established to facilitate China trade o British own bank to finance entrepot trade • Insurance o There’s risk in undertaking long voyages with lots of valuable goods (i.e. risk of pirates, storms, etc.) o Creation of insurance for the goods Hong Kong and Entrepot of People - HK will not be HK if not for migration - HK as a product of migration • Presence of different groups: o Chinese o European (British) o Indian subjects  serve to police (part of the Opium War) and other Indians in HK cause of trade o Eurasians = offspring of interracial marriages (European + Chinese)  Has their own unique identity (more affiliated with the Chinese community though) • Minimal interaction, especially outside of trading affairs/ official business • Communal, cultural diversity  minimal integration/interaction o People not assimilated, not a melting pot o Each has their own community, leaders, practices, etc. • Language and cultural barriers  lack of effective communication European Community - Made up of the British, who were in HK to govern/rule  dominated the European population in HK - Social hierarchy present within the community - Authority with the government officials • Officials = cadet officers o James Steward Lockhart – Registrar-General, later appointed to Colonial Secretary (1895-1902)  2 in command 3  Known for raising the Union Jack to indicate British territory in ______ o Cecil Clementi – Governor (1925-30)  Accomplished governor and scholar, specializing in Cantonese folk/love
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