Class Notes (835,798)
Canada (509,410)
History (3,264)
HIS385H1 (117)
Chin Lim (107)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Industrialization and Social Developments.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Chin Lim

HIS385 Lecture 7 MAR7/2014 Industrialization and Social Developments - Resumption of British administration • Military gov’t, 1945  civilian gov’t., 1946+ - HK government’s new attitude, post-WW2 • Defeat • Decolonization • Consequences - Post-war economy • Entrepot boom, 1945-50 • Korean War, 1950-53 • Rapid expansion of industries o 2 common strategies for industrialization (1) Import substitution industrialization • An economy would develop domestic industries to produce goods to replace goods bought from outside  Need to introduce policy (tariffs and legislations) making it difficult for foreign goods to enter the market  Ensure population to be large to absorb domestically produced goods and wealthy enough to buy goods • In 1950, does HK have these conditions?  NO. This is because HK = free port  Population was large enough but were rather poor  Recovering from economic difficulties or refugees fleeing from civil war in China • Therefore, import substitution didn’t work (2) Export led industrialization • Exporting goods to the outside world  Would work for HK because of business  network and connections that boomed in entrepot trade  Existing network for HK manufacturers to take advantage of • 1930s, HK part of the British policy (recall: British Imperial Economy Conference, 1932) to deal with the Great Depression  HK took advantage of this, selling to British colonies (preferential tariffs)  ended in 1960s  Sterling Area still in effect to balance currency  HK$ stability because of British making it easier to ______ • Not a master plan the HK gov’t created  gov’t has always tried to stay out of the economy  These were steps taken by HK manufacturers in a trial-error process • Largely because of this condition, HK went through a successful phase of industrialization o This phase of industrialism was a gradual phase, described as “Economic take off” beginning in the 1950s o By 1960s, HK fully industrialized - Full industrialization by 1960s • Manufacturing sector as largest employer o Place were wealth guaranteed, occupations created o Gained positive reputation, expand into non-traditional markets • Developed new markets  Led to investments in machinery which leads to entering new markets  This led to outsourcing to HK, 1960s-70s  outsourcing because of reputation and to produce high quality goods • In the early phase of industrialization, men worked in textiles  highly manual but as industries developed, more opportunities for women to participate, introduction of new technologies - Positive non-intervention • Pre-WW2 fiscal conservatism o Keeping balanced budget – reason why gov’t didn’t interfere with economy • Also because people of HK were sojourners – no need to invest o Attitude changed after 1945 • Adopted new fiscal policy “non-intervention”  main principle of the HK gov’t  Involved HK gov’t in limited ways to facilitate/develop economic growth  “intervening minimally but strategically” • Will not introduce policy to benefit private sector, would rather invest in areas not directly related to economy but will facilitate economic growth  Example: infrastructure developments  encourage economic growth although not directly related to economy (1) Kai Tak airport  Airport: movement of people, goods, etc.  Re-developed after destruction of the Jp. Occupation as an international airport (2) Kwai Chung container port, 1970s  Popular efficient method of world economy  By 1970s, more and more companies began using containers/cargo (3) Cross Harbor Tunnel, 1972  Underwater tunnel linking Kowloon & HK island (physical link)  Provided new way of travel  Led to the development of Mass Transit Railway (MTR), 1979  laid out in such a way that its connected with railway line – Canton Railway (?)  Infrastructure built under the non-intervention policy - Post-WW2 population increased: 0.5 mil to 2 mil (1945-50) • Population went up to pre-war level • Significant increase because of o Post-war baby boom o Chinese civil (1945-49), Communist Regime (1949+) • Disruption in China forced people to flee as refugees o 1950s-70s: Great Leap Forward – Cultural Revolution • Led to instability again in China  influx of refugee o No specific policy in HK to prevent refugee  they encourage refugee because they’d be use as cheap labour • The only policy they have was the “Touch Base” Policy (1950s) o Refugees can settle in HK if they can cross the border and declare themselves at a police station in any town/village/city & inform them of their condition  papers given for settlement afterwards o Ended in 1980 • In 1980, emergence of the HK identity card o It has name, age, address, etc. o No HK ID = illegal immigrant • Those who went to HK have various reasons to stay in HK  they didn’t have a sojourner’s mentality o They left China on their own free will cause of political/social instability o Shift to settlers’ mentality as refugees planned to stay in HK o They provided supply of people (cheap labour), skills and capital in HK o No longer sojourners, brought important resources contributing to HK’s industrialization • Historical milestone - Shortages of basic necessities • More people = less food, housing, etc. o For recently arrived people, they had a hard time finding housing because of HK’s limited land space – resulted in the creation of shanty towns o Squatter areas began to develop throughout HK • These squatter areas were at rick of fire • Shek Kip Mei Fire, Christmas 1953  50 000 people became homeless overnight – a major disaster but the gov’t provided affordable housing o The gov’t decided to invest in public housing to solidify their presence post-WW2 as colonial rulers • Part of the positive non-intervention policy – housing not directly related to economic growth o Public housing, 1954  a turning point • Very basic housing unit with shared facilities (kitchen, washroom) solved housing problems o HK began realizing that the people are not sojourners anymore – a turning point • HK gov’t felt necessary to provide housing for these people - Social turmoil • After 1920, few social disturbances (recall: the strikes) • In the 1950s-60s, there’s a few more o Kowloon Riots, Oct. 1956 • Celebration of the Republican Revolution  supporters of Nation
More Less

Related notes for HIS385H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.