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Post WW2 Transformations & Declonization and Special Administrative Region.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Chin Lim

Post World War 2 Transformations 8/13/2012 11:56:00 AM Resumption of British administration Military govt., 1945  civilian govt., 1946 + HK government‟s new attitude, post ww2  Defeat  Decolonization after ww2  Consequences Post war economy  Entrepot boom, 1945-50  Korean War, 150-53: UN embargo vs. China  Entrepot trade 1950 +   Rapid expansion of industries 2 common strategies for industrialization  Import substitution industrialization  Export-led industrialization Economic take-off Full industrialization  Manufacturing industry would be dominant in the colony  Manufacturing as largest employer  Developing new markets  Outsourcing to HK, 1960s-70s  Positive non- intervention  Pre-WW2 fiscal conservatism  John J. Cowperthwaite, Financial Secretary (1961-1971) “intervening minimally but strategically private sector. Infrastructure developments  Kai Tak Airport  Container Port  Cross Harbor Tunnel, 1972  Mass Transit Railway (MTR) 1979  Post-WW2 population: up .5 million to 2 million (1945-50)  Post-war baby boom  Chinese civil war (1945-49)  Communist regime (1949+)  1950‟s-70s; Great Leap  Forward, cultural Revolution Post World War 2 Transformations 8/13/2012 11:56:00 AM  “touch base” policy, 1950‟s o HK identity card, 1980 o Refugees planned to stay people, skills, capital in HK historical milestone  Shortages of basic necessities  Squatter areas throughout HK o Shek Kip Mei Fire, Christmas 1953 o o Public Housing, 1954+ Turning point.  Social Turmoil o Kowloon Riots, Oct. 1956  Govt. responses:  New restrictions  Politics in school  Anti-riot police o Star Ferry Riots, 1966  905 arrested, half released without charge  From these riots, the government was able to suppress the participants  1967 Confrontation  Cultural Revolution in China  Communist cells in HK  Support for colonial govt.  Post Riots commission  Reforms recommended o Education Government system HK as a link between China and the world  Foreign investors via HK  Foreign expertise via HK  China‟s economic interests in Hong Kong  Chinese investment in HK from 1980‟s Importance of HK-China economic relations for 1997  Narrowed economic differences o Advantages of capitalist system Chinese investment boost confidence  Foreign investors in HK Post World War 2 Transformations 8/13/2012 11:56:00 AM  HK as financial center Reassurance for “one country, two system” Preparations in PRC, UK  Hong Kong-Macao affairs office (HKMAO)  Constitution provision: Special Administrative Region (SAR), 1981 o High degree of autonomy  British Nationality Act, 1981 o HK residents as “British dependent territory citizens” o No automatic right of abode  Sino: British Joint Declaration o Margaret Thatcher in Beijing, September 1982  Tougher position on HK  Leaseback arrangement, 50 years extension of lease- rejected  Initiated formal negotiations  Three-legged stool o Britain, China, and Hong Kong o In reality, three legs are uneven – Hong Kong „leg” often shortest o 1982. Governor Edward Youde: he represented HK o reality though, shown hong kong to have the shortest leg…. o o Sino- British Joint Declartiaton, December 1984  HKSAR under authrotiy of PRC  High degree of autonomy (but not foreign affairs, defense)  Chief executive appointed, on local consultations or elections  Principle government officals appointed, nominated by chief executive. No changes for 50 years  Independent executive, legislative, and judicial power  Legistlative council elections  Problems with the Joint declaration  HK‟s Autonomy , 50 years unchanged dependant on PRC govt o SAR inferior to central government o Central government authority could not be challenged  Nature of elections, consultatiotns unspecified o CE o LegCO o In Hong Kong Post World War 2 Transformations 8/13/2012 11:56:00 AM o Public sentiment: realistic – “reserved optimism” fluctuations in stock market, properly market, HK$ greater political awareness Desire for democratization emerged in 1970s+  1950s -1960s: survival as goal – economic pursuits  political apathy  no alternatives: habituation  1970s: reforms, new programs  improved govt. – people relations  a different colonial got.  Education Increased politicization, 1980‟s +  Local education  knowledge + awareness
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