Lecture 2: 20th Century Neuroscience

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17 Jan 2012
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Silver stain to view whole neurons, only 1% of neurons seen, can see whole neuron structure w/o other neurons getting in way (tangled web) Identification of synaptic structures at boutons , i. e. axon terminals. Proposed neuron doctrine , that all brain information is carried in separate cells. Proposed functional circuit diagrams in many brain areas, e. g. retina, cerebellum, spinal cord, hippocampus and cortex, based on anatomy alone. Incoming axon w dots surrounding cell boutons, seemed to surround cell body, synaptic terminals, pre-synaptic endings believed they came from separate cells (golgi disagreed, said fluid flow and not separate cells) Cajal proved cells separate by saying have changes at synaptic connections. Cajal proposed synapses at boutons, where changes made. Came from poor family, father medical demonstrator, became anatomist th century neuroscience. Sherrington, cajal and pavlov (classical conditioning, reflexes can be modified by learning): from reflexes to synapses, from circuits to learning (1880-1920) Transition from electrical to molecular models (ions, transmitters, proteins)

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