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Review Session #8:

Human Biology
Course Code
John Yeomans

of 1
HMB200H1S; March. 16, 2012
Review Session #8
Not many difs from other mammals in our brain except for
prefrontal cortex
Schizo left temporal lobe delusions disordered speech
Penfield’s interest in left temporal lobe
1950s believed mental disorders untreatable until
antipsychotic drugs (chlorpromazine/chlorazine) found
o Neuroleptics discovered via trial & error
Work on dop neurons particularly by blocking dop2 recs
o 1970s Seeman, John Hopkins grp
o Follow recsunderstand how disorders work
1980s: Antidepressants, lithium, SSRIs & benzos
o 1 per decade
o No great breakthrus since 1990s: Prozac & SSRIs
Ppl wonder if era of drug discovery has slowed even tho more
Errors in psychiatry created
Since can reverse mental disorders w drugs, what r causes in
first place?
o Ex. delusional in mania, depression, schizo
Originally thought was just transmitter imbalances dop,
serotonin, ne, but don’t explain y these disorders get
progressively worse
o These brain systems are actually very stable
Changes in limbic system over time ppl lose contact w
emotions & thoughts
Taking over of our thought & limbic emotional systems
disorders in brain developments
Schizo = Neurodevelopmental disorder?
Adult onset disorders prenatal changes
Ex. Schizo mother’s condition can change likelihood in Schizo
in embryo
Genes associated all developmental
o Neurogenesis, production of new synapses
So prenatal & genetic factors something about adult-onset
triggers changes in brain fn
Something about puberty & middle age makes us more
susceptible to transmitter changes from long ago
o All involve limbic system changes
Changes in memory & eval system esp in hippocampus
Similar to changes when become addicted to a drug
overvalue drug experience, undervalue normal things
Considerable evidence that drug addiction involves BNST
changes in glutamate in subiculum & amygdala re-eval of
Mental disorder: Maybe addicted to neg thinking about self
Schizo change in hippo memory systems?
o Thoughts & delusions take over reality
Convert normal thoughts into memory disorder
o New way of thinking about it: How development of brain
interacts w changing experiences & transmitters
triggers combo of symptoms in mental disorders
Evidence that during middle pregnancy GABAergic
controlling neurons protection against emotional
disorders that happen when loss of control
Epileptic seizures sometimes bizarre feelings &
experiences just before seizure (auras) overactivation of
glutamate neurons
o Frontal cortex funny; Amygdala emotional; Hippo
o Loss of inhibition
Movement away from basic dopamine fns & basic
neurotransmitter theories of depression
o Something about these transmitters can interact w
higher brain changes in limbic system
Movement away from “brainstem transmitters” to limbic
system disruptions perspectives
Q: Are these disorders memory disorders?