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Lecture 1

HMB202H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Caseous Necrosis, Coagulative Necrosis, Cream Cheese


Department
Human Biology
Course Code
HMB202H1
Professor
Ron Wilson
Lecture
1

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HMB202 Lecture 1
Key Atlas Findings: Income and rates of Diabetes
- Rural areas: Highest rate of diabetes, transportation relies on car, least activity.
- Urban areas: Lower rate of diabetes, transportation relies on walking, more access to gym
and programs.
Definition of disease
Biomedical:
- functional disequilibrium
- a damage that show abnormality, can be caused by pathogens or nature of the body.
Other definitions:
- body’s reaction to deregulations -environment can also act as an outer force
- disease is body’s normal response towards extreme stress.
- It’s the “end stage” and irreversible
- Etiology- the cause (including nature) to disease
- Further progression in disease = more irreversible
Basic cellular response
Successful -cell return to normal OR cell adapt
Cell response
Unsuccessful cell death OR neoplasia (uncontrolled growth of cells)
Harmful stimulus to cells could lead to…
1) Non-selective irreversible damage (fate is sealed) cell death necrosis
2) Mild damage cell degeneration: hydropic change, fatty change, cloudy swelling cell
can survive if problem resolves (autophagy, protein synthesis). IF NOT, necrosis or
apoptosis.
3) Selective damage (e.g. DNA, mitochondria, cell surface) programmed cell death
apoptosis.
4) Non-lethal damage (e.g. mutation) dysplasia neoplasia
Cellular Responses to injury
Degenerative:
- Reversible
- Irreversible necrosis (cell death)
-Coagulative necrosis: dead tissue; firm, recognizable structure, jelly like
-Colliquative necrosis: dead tissue; semi-liquid, unable to recognize structure
-Caseous necrosis: dead tissue; soft, friable, cream cheese like consistency, white/grey
clump
Proliferative/Growth response:
- Hyperplasia (cell number increase)
Can be good! Hyperplasia:
Smooth muscle cells increase
in number in women’s uterus
to allow fetus to grow
Dysplasia: abnormal cell, but NOT cancer
Neoplasia: Cancer
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