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Lecture 5

lecture 5 notes- epidemiology.docx

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Human Biology
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William Ju

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TRACKING DISEASEINTRODUCTION TO EPIDEMIOLOGYEndemic diseases are based on a specific location eg Malaria in AfricaEpidemic diseases appear at certain times eg winter flu West Nile in summer Occurs where there are significantly more cases of the same disease than predicted from past ie past experience plays a key role for mode of transmissionEg Cholera outbreak in London England with inductive reasoning was eradicated since the association between water as a vector was isolated to a specific pumpEpidemics and measurescases1Defining the outbreak using populationatriskCasesdisease identity serological characteristics signssymptoms and known causesPopulation at riskcalculate incubation periodattack rates2Examine distribution time and place3Identify relevant variables for their combination correlation4Develop and test hypothesis eg recent outbreak of polio affect older populations too5Recommend control measures so disease can be contained or dealt with more efficiently next timeCASE STUDY CholeraAcute intestinal infection from faecesinfected sources aquatic fresh and salt water Vibrio cholerae which releases cholera enterotoxin that cause extreme vomiting and diarrhoea 1520L per dayrapid dehydrationloss of fluids and electrolytes ion transportCholera toxin blocks Na and K uptake and removal from lumen of small intestines loss of fluids and electrolytes Na K HCO in diarrhoea3 hypokalaemialow levels of K K important in repolarising cardiac muscle cells
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