Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (640,000)
UTSG (50,000)
Lecture 2

HMB203H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Health Education, Maternal Death, Child Mortality

Human Biology
Course Code
Maria Papaconstantinou

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
USA is a high income country
that spends a relatively high
amt. on healthcare yet has a
lower life expectancy than
countries that spend less on
Children from "no-maternal-
education" households are
more likely to be stunted
In 1962, cuba was closer to the
US in terms of mortality rate
and infants per family than chile
Stunting rates are higher in rural
than urban populations
A higher percentage of urban
women received four or more
(the standard) antenatal care
visits than rural
Child mortality rate of children
born in richest vs. poorest
households favours the rich
Girls are much more likely to fall
behind in health than boys
Indigenous peoples in honduras
and bolivia are more likely to
have maternal deaths than the
national average
End poverty in all its forms everywhere
Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education & promote lifelong learning opportunities
for all
Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive
employment and decent work for all
Reduce inequality within and among countries
Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
Key SDGs:
Costs of healthcare are extremely important especially to the poor- bc large out-of-
pocket expenditures can have huge impact on yhrit financial status and even push
them into povrty
Health id a major item of national expenditure in ALL countries
The approashes adopted by diff countries for the financing and carrying out of various
health services raises important issues of equity
Health is affected by healthcare costs and poverty
This is known as human capital
The knowledge and skills determine whether or not the individual is enrolled in
school, and how successful they are once enrolled
And this is also affected by poverty
Health plays a major role in the productivity, knowledge and skills that one develops
Overview of Health
Ex: parents being sick/chronically ill would affect the well-being of children; their
school attendance, performance, etc.
When moms die of HIV children are more likely to be poorly fed, malnourished
and in ill health
As a result theyre less likely to go to school or perform well there
Also likely that one or more of the children will be pulled out of school while
mom is sick to take care of her and take over her chores and responsibilities
AIDs epidemic shows how poor health of one generation affects the schooling
prospects and future earnings of the next
The health and education of parents affects health and education of children;
intergenerational links
Families sometimes delay the enrollment of a malnourished child
Often results in reduced attendance at school thereby decreasing performance
Also decreases mental ability
Malnutrition and disease affect cognitive dvlpt. and school performance of children
Ex: the education of the mother is a predictor of the health of the child
Therefore, good health behaviours shape better health outcomes
Education on appropriate health behaviours is an important determinant of health
The higher the level of eduction of the Mother the greater chance that her child will be
Better education usually prevents people from engaging in unhealthy behaviours
Children from households where mothers are not educated are much more likely to die
before their fifth birthday (child mortality) - for every additional year of schooling the
mother received, there was a 7-9% reduction in the mortality of her children under 5
Education contributes to prevention and management of illness
Health and Education
Therefore it is also useful to look into the specific situations/atmosphere of each country
rather than just comparing developed vs. developing countries
While the disparities between countries might seem reduced, the disparities within countries may
vary greatly
The preventable differences in the burden of disease/injury/violence to achieve optimal
health, experienced by economically and socially disadvantaged populations
Health Patterns across regions and countries
Health status
Access to health services; geographic, cultural and financial availiability
Coverage of health services
Protection from financial risks due to health costs
Fairness in financing
Distribution of health benefits
Pay attention to the extent to which they vary across soscioeconomic status,
ethnicity, gender, religion, location, occupation, social capital
Health inequities:
Inequities focuses on fairness whereas equality focuses on outcome
Health Equity is seen as the capability to achieve good health, not just the distribution
of healthcare . It also includes the fairness of the processes and so there must be
significant attention paid to non-discrimination in the delivery of healthcare
There is enormous variance in basic indicators of health across regions and countries
This is largely influenced by varying income
These differences can also reflect the inequitable relationships between countries and
political choices
Indigenous people
Ethnic and religious minorities
Rural pops
Those working in informal sector of economy
Less well off groups typically consist of:
Some countries have substantial variation in health indicators across population groups
Health Disparities
Life expectancy in high income countries are significantly higher than in Sub-Saharan
Maternal mortality rate is 300x higher in Afghanistan than in Scandinavia
Infant mortality in SA is 10x higher than that in high income countries
Ex: the life expectancy of a canadian aboriginal woman compared to canadian woman
is 77 vs. 83
Some people see these differences largely as a reflection of the status of economic
development in the world HOWEVER important to note that inequitable
relationships between countries play a part in the cause of weak economic
development in poorer countries
Disparities across countries
Higher income countries tend to experience relatively little variance in health
indicators across pop groups
Reflects accessibility to health care services, localized income, education levels
and availability
Urban dwellers tend to enjoy better health status, coverage and access to services
than rural dwellers
Rural people tend to have lower incomes, less education and access to services and
weaker political voice
Ex: life expectancy of a white american male vs a black american male
These tend to be low- and middle-income countries OR high-income countries with
significant marginalized populations
The child mortality in kerala state was much lower than that in UP
Important to look beyond average or national rates in all countries if one is to
understand the health status of a country's people, specifically those that are poorer
and marginalized
Disparities within countries
There is a large gap in access, coverage, etc. between rich and poor
Income is associated with beter housing, education, access to safe water and hyfiene,
health services and safer work environments
Antenatal coverage
Births attended by skilled personnel
Demand for family planning satisfied
DTP3 immunization coverage among one-year olds
The richest quintile is far more likely to receive:
Higher income is mostly associated with dominant ethnic groups and more political
power and prowess
Must make frequent payment for treatments and drugs which can amount to a
substantial chunk of their income
At the same time illness usually leads to a decline in earnings due to inability to
attend work
Indirect costs of transportation to and from a health service provider also come
into play
When people become ill in poor countries they seek medical help BUT:
Ex: Measles or meningitis could lead to severe disability
Polio can lead to paralysis
Leprosy to deformity
ALSO Mental Health conditions!! Not just physical
Disabilities associated with diabetes
Chronic disabilities often have a significant long-lasting impact on expenditure
on health ervices
They usually lead to a decline in the earnings of a disabled person, as
compared to their potential income were it not for the disability
There are also costs to those who don’t suffer from any illness but rather living with a
disability that comes from different health conditions
Studies done in India show that hospitalization was a major factor in people and
families falling into poverty
Disparities by Income
Disparities by Gender
Poverty video shows that while percentage of world pop living in poverty has decreased by half the
number of people has stayed relatively the same,e
Education, Poverty and the Economy
Saturday, February 3, 2018
2:20 AM
global health Page 1
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version