HPS202 Systems


Department
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Course Code
HPS202H1
Professor
G.Garbutt

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 3 pages of the document.
HPS202H
Thursday, September 15, 2011
Putting Out System
system of manufacture where raw materials are purchased by central agent and
distributed to a collection of independent artisans, working in their own homes, to be
fashioned into goods; central agent pays by the piece and collects finished product from
artisans to be sold on, generally as refined material (before industrialization)
entrepreneur purchases bails of wool, distributed to artisan households in
Cotswolds, [children card wool, women spin wool into thread, men weave to cloth],
entrepreneur picks up cloth from households to be sold to tailors, makers... means
of producing refined material for further stage of production
Turnpikes and Canals
mid 17th century roads in Britain poorly maintained and unreliable, slow and
dangerous transport
late 17th century sees development of turnpike companies building reliable all weather
roads and charging tolls to pay for maintenance
late17th-early18th century sees enlargement of river navigations and development of a
canal system
by 1750 all towns in England, Wales and Scotland, are connected by reliable road
system and canals connect major areas of industrial production, sources of materials
and markets: transportation make factory possible
faster and more reliable, lowered costs, encourage centralization of entrepreneurs
development of catalogues and standards
also increase embezzlement of raw materials (can’t keep track, too many things too
many places)
factory system increase control over materials and workers
Factory
new way of organizing labour offering greater control of production and permits scaling
up of old tech, intro of new
factory embodies industrial ideals of more, faster, cheaper
beer > water since most areas no safe drinking water... cheaper
Porter Brewing
malt = barley dried in kiln
mash = malt crushed and mixed with water
wort = water off the mash once it absorbs sugars from malt
center of porter production = London
coke from Darbyshire, Pembrokeshire, Swansea
malt roasted in Herefordshire
Vat
vat storage introduced in 1730s, replaces 36 gallon wooden barrel with vats capable of
storing thousands of gallons
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version