HPS202 Industrialization of Sound


Department
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Course Code
HPS202H1
Professor
G.Garbutt

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HPS202
Thursday, October 13, 2011
Industrialization of Sound
Phonograph
first dev by Edison 1877 as dictation machine
doesn’t see potential as mass product, dev for business purposes
1887 Bell takes over, works to produce mass market playback machine
public appeal demonstrated in exhibitions
1887 Emile Berliner dev flat recording disk
1900 dev of electroforming process to allow mass reproduction of records
decrease regional music but increase isolation of entertainment
i.e. jazz
1902 recording by Enrico Caruso sells 1 million copies
1914 phonograph well est as first home electronic entertainment device
The Radio
1880s James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz perform experiments with producing
and stabilizing electromagnetic waves
1901 Guglielmo Marconi produces long distance wireless device, made use of Morse
telegraph key and Morse code, designed for ship to shore communication, not expected
to be tool of mass comm (require massive energy)
1913 research labs begin trying to create stable vacuum tube
1920 Westinghouse creates first broadcasting station as means of encouraging
consumers to purchase radio
vacuum tube
1904 British John Ambrose Fleming introduce diode; valve allowing current to pass
one way, could be used to change alternating current of electromagnetic waves into
direct current needed to generate sound waves in receiver
1906 American Lee De Forest produce triode; adds third electrode to control flow
of electrons between two electrodes permitting amplification of electronic signals,
permit amplification of weak signal prod by human voice; very unreliable and un-
useable in commercial sense
neither actually vacuum; lead to industry research
1913 General Electric and Bell launch research programs to dev better triodes
Major corps in US electronics (monopoly)
General Electric
Westinghouse
Bell
Radio Corporation America, patent tool dev by three at encouragement of US
gov 1919; attempt to fight UK patent domination of radios
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