HPS202H1 Lecture Notes - Lise Meitner, Pierre Curie, Henri Becquerel

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Document Summary

Scientists in power beginnings of french nuclear program: 1939-1940 connections btwn scientific practice and politics, wartime: incentives and hindrances for scientific research intro to main researchers in nuclear physics in france, curie dynasty. Irene curie (1897-1956: frederic joliot (1900-1958, nobel prize in chemistry, 1935 interactions of radiation and matter transmutation of chemical elements discovery of artificial radioactivity. Creation of research program: france, 1920s and 30s debt, inflation, instability, radicalization scientists in government, promotion of science, cnrs (caisse nationale de la recherche scientfique) rise of german national socialism. Fission experiments of transmutation with heavy elements: otto hahn and lise meitner (1938): fission of heavy element produces two lighter elements and free energy. Joliot, halban and kowarski: fission produces free neutrons, possible chain reaction, fission potential uses in weapons. Research at college de france designs for nuclear reactors patents for reactors and weapons: sept 1939 german invasion to poland, france and gb declare war, scientists called to reserve.