HPS211H1 Lecture Notes - Phlogiston Theory, Chemical Revolution, Antoine Lavoisier

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January 24, 2013 Lecture Notes
(Thursday)
The Chemical Revolution: Dalton’s Atomic Chemistry
Oxygen vs. Phlogiston Chemistry
- Iron rust = compound of oxygen and iron
- Iron = considered to be an element can’t be broken down into further atoms
- The main piece of evidence that they had was that iron ore turns into iron metal
- This was the same for any sort of metal ore
- So because you could account for the transition b/w an ore and its metal using
phlogiston chemistry
Oxygen chemistry
- Interconvertibility of fixed and dephlogisticated air through combustion and
respiration
- Quantitative aspects of calcinations
- Quantitative aspects of combustion
- Differences b/w various airs
- Formation of acids
Phlogiston chemistry
- Interconvertability of fixed and dephlogisticated air through combustion and
respiration
- Qualitative similarity of metals
- Qualitative aspects of combustion
- No anomalous acids
Lavoisier’s Tools of Revolution
- No crucial test between these two theories
- Advocates are many ways talking past people advocating for a different
paradigm
- Adoption of new theories often includes ‘hey look at what we can do with this
new way of thinking’
- Why was he adopted?
Practices and Principles
- Upheld the conversation of matter
- Said he would be consistent with any sort of physical basis you could ever give
chemistry
- This was a virtue of this system
- Enclosed reactions
- Idea of a balanced chemical reaction formed
- Recognition of anomalies
- Most importantly measurement and quantitative analysis was the primary way of
investigation (included measuring mass and volume)
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Document Summary

Iron rust = compound of oxygen and iron. Iron = considered to be an element can"t be broken down into further atoms. The main piece of evidence that they had was that iron ore turns into iron metal. This was the same for any sort of metal ore. So because you could account for the transition b/w an ore and its metal using phlogiston chemistry. Interconvertibility of fixed and dephlogisticated air through combustion and respiration. Interconvertability of fixed and dephlogisticated air through combustion and respiration. No crucial test between these two theories. Advocates are many ways talking past people advocating for a different paradigm. Adoption of new theories often includes hey look at what we can do with this new way of thinking". Said he would be consistent with any sort of physical basis you could ever give chemistry. This was a virtue of this system. Most importantly measurement and quantitative analysis was the primary way of.

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