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HPS LEC 3.docx

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History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
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Curtis Forbes

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HPS LEC 3- Jan 17 Newtonianism 1. Newton's Physics- 'mathematical way'; 'system of the world' 2. Newtonianism after Newton- as a physicist; Newton on the continent 3. Newtonianism outside of physics Newton's Physics  called his method the mathematical way- mix of Baconian and Descartes  form of mechanics but he still liked Descartes; if something couldn't be explained quantitatively  observation and experiment rather than conjecture  analysis and composition is how he describes his method  studying nature took part of two phases- you do your analysis and draw out general laws through induction (Bacon) and in that induction you must make sure you are phrasing these laws quantitatively through language of maths  3 laws of motion  then you do composition- making predictions of certain outcomes; forming subsidiary laws based on 3 laws of motion  in contrast to Descartes, deduction from the phenomena; strictly speaking he is actually inducing laws from the phenomena;  deduction is conceived of necessarily truth preserving inference- premise is true then conclusion must be true; induction is adding to the inference  Newton denied the role of hypotheses in methods which Cartesians were using  postulated the universal law of gravity  "I have not as of yet deduce from phenomena for these properties of gravity...."- discoverered attractive force between all bodies, done this through observation and experiment; done this for terrestrial and celestial bodies;  Descartes- only way to explain anything is through concept of contact between rigid bodies; Newton ok with this concept but did not adhere to such mechanical explanations in explaining everything  "Rules of Reasoning in Philosophy"- while he has his method of analysis and composition he still had some tenets of mechanical philosophy; space as a container  Newton's rules check on internet  1. Nature is simple treated as such; not clear the God would make universe in a simple way but for Newton- natural philosophy must be done seeing world as simple; 2. don't overcomplicate- come up with a general law; 3. universal bodies that we encounter as fundamental of all things, everything we can think of as an object has some extension in space. 4. in experimental philosophy, induction from phenomena must be made- formulate through general induction through your observation, use it as your general law until some phenomena causes you to change it, some counterexample as impetus to change  Metaphysical Presuppositions- everything made up of little things; his commitment to determinism; every action can be determined based on laws o understanding of space as a container; idea of empty space makes perfectly conceptual sense where as Liebnitz opposed Newton's ''system of the world"  a system for understanding all matter and motion based on 3 laws  First Law- accepted in some form since Galileo; Law of Inertia- a body in motion or rest will continue to remain in that state unless it is compelled to change that state by a force external to it  Second Law- Force= mass x acceleration; a change in motion is proportional to the force acting on a body and occurs in the direction of the force  Third law- Law of Action and reaction- for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction; very controversial law; Newton effectively generalized the law surrounding static force to dynamic force  Law of Universal Gravitation- inferred from his three laws of motion; Newton argued that another law of attraction can be induced through observation and experimentation; through observation of terrestrial and celestial bodies; this same law explains the motion of planets as well as bodies on the earth; unlike Descartes who
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