HPS211H1 Lecture Notes - Newtonianism, Inductivism, Foundationalism

History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Course Code
Curtis Forbes

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Descartes, Newton, and "The" Scientific Revolution
1. Aristotelean Scholasticism
2. Copernicus, Galileo, and the Mathematical View of Nature
3. Descartes' Mechanical Philosophy
4. Bacon and Boyle's
Aristotlean Scholasticism
Aristotle (4th BCE)
"The Philospher"
formulated the first brand of logic
methods for understanding nature and wide variety of different topics
in a rudimentary way, he was an empiricist- way to understand the world is to go out and look at
fresco with plato and aristotle walking together
plato saw objects as imperfect representations of a perfect world; how world departs from
them in its imperfections; arisotle claims everything is right here in this world, all forms are here
we just need to look at them
Aristotle not always a major figure in Christian tradition; Christian study based in Monasticism,
studying scripture, living ascetic life and not looking beyond Church doctrine
1000 Scholasticism emerged; new texts were found in Europe that included almost complete
versions of the Aristotlean world
Copernicus, Galileo and the Mathematical View of Nature
Copernicus (15th-16 c. CE)
Heliocentric Astronomy- earth is centre of cosmos, outside of that terrestrial spheres and
planets but nott that important
he saw that there were practical difficulties with figuring out where planets, stars would be with
a model that was geocentric, earth at its centre
he proposed alt that sun is at the centre, stationary body
his heliocentric astronomy was easy to deal with mathematically but difficult to digest esp by
Roman Catholics who did not take it as literal that sun stationary and earth moved
around early 16th century, heliocentric view out
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