lecture notes

History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Course Code
Curtis Forbes

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Jan 18 lecture notes
x Scientific revolution, many historians are skeptical as to evaluate that time as what was going on
x Kuhn
o Realist about revolutions
o Claims there have been lots of revolutions in the history of science
o Sees the concept of revolutions
x Bowler and morus and shapin
o Skeptics about the scientific revolution
o dZÁv}]vYPZ]v}uuvP
o "the"--- uniqueness, happened only once
o "Scientific--- the scientific method, unified
x There is no way to divide easily the non and real scientific
o Revolution----- fast and bounded, time span needs to be quick and dated at a point, get
this from the image of political revolutions
x Intellectual authority in the 16th and 17th centuries
o Philosophy is number one and is predominant
o Natural philosophy came second and then math almost completely divorced and was
third, astronomy was a marriage of the two came fourth
x Physics was very qualitative not a quantitative and mathematics was explicitly
not a tool
x Copernicus
o Created a heliocentric astronomical way
o (tractable easy for calculating)
o Good for calendar creating
o Did not pump this idea to be public
x Galileo galilei
o Mathematician
o Copernican
o Courtier (advises nobility)
o Defended the reality of copernicanism
o Advocated the use of mathematics to describe nature
o Conflict with aristotelians philosophers and theologians
o Strong drive for publicity
o Refined the telescope
o Produced many telescope and gave them as gifts to princes and kings
o Discovered "stars" circling around jupiter
o Reflects a shift of intellectual authority out of the university and into the courts of
princes, popes and kings
o Appointed galileo court philosoher
o As a court defend novel theses but never to come to conclusions because it would be
endorsed and could hinder position of power if wrong
o Evidence of truths by cosimo endorsing it
o Politicaly shielded from any criticism
o Given intellectual authority
o Incentivized to investigate elaborate copernicanism, because it was interesting and
something to talk about
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