Jan 18 lecture notes
x Scientific revolution, many historians are skeptical as to evaluate that time as what was going on
x Kuhn
o Realist about revolutions
o Claims there have been lots of revolutions in the history of science
o Sees the concept of revolutions
x Bowler and morus and shapin
o Skeptics about the scientific revolution
o dZÁv}]vYPZ]v}uuvP
o "the"--- uniqueness, happened only once
o "Scientific--- the scientific method, unified
x There is no way to divide easily the non and real scientific
o Revolution----- fast and bounded, time span needs to be quick and dated at a point, get
this from the image of political revolutions
x Intellectual authority in the 16th and 17th centuries
o Philosophy is number one and is predominant
o Natural philosophy came second and then math almost completely divorced and was
third, astronomy was a marriage of the two came fourth
x Physics was very qualitative not a quantitative and mathematics was explicitly
not a tool
x Copernicus
o Created a heliocentric astronomical way
o (tractable easy for calculating)
o Good for calendar creating
o Did not pump this idea to be public
x Galileo galilei
o Mathematician
o Copernican
o Courtier (advises nobility)
o Defended the reality of copernicanism
o Advocated the use of mathematics to describe nature
o Conflict with aristotelians philosophers and theologians
o Strong drive for publicity
o Refined the telescope
o Produced many telescope and gave them as gifts to princes and kings
o Discovered "stars" circling around jupiter
o Reflects a shift of intellectual authority out of the university and into the courts of
princes, popes and kings
o Appointed galileo court philosoher
o As a court defend novel theses but never to come to conclusions because it would be
endorsed and could hinder position of power if wrong
o Evidence of truths by cosimo endorsing it
o Politicaly shielded from any criticism
o Given intellectual authority
o Incentivized to investigate elaborate copernicanism, because it was interesting and
something to talk about
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Document Summary

Claims there have been lots of revolutions in the history of science. Scientific revolution, many historians are skeptical as to evaluate that time as what was going on. There is no way to divide easily the non and real scientific. Revolution----- fast and bounded, time span needs to be quick and dated at a point, get this from the image of political revolutions. Intellectual authority in the 16th and 17th centuries. Natural philosophy came second and then math almost completely divorced and was third, astronomy was a marriage of the two came fourth. Physics was very qualitative not a quantitative and mathematics was explicitly not a tool. Created a heliocentric astronomical way (tractable easy for calculating) Did not pump this idea to be public. Advocated the use of mathematics to describe nature. Produced many telescope and gave them as gifts to princes and kings.

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