HPS211H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Pneumatic Chemistry, Pneumatic Trough, Phlogiston Theory

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Alchemy found its roots in greek alchemy (trying to understand processes of metalwork. Parcelsus, properties of matter were the precursor to successful chemistry, remedies for disease based on properties of natural substances (iatrochemistry), four elements (fire, air, earth, water), tria prima (salt, sulphur, mercury) Boyle, everything is matter in motion, wanted to embrace chemical and mechanical chemistry part of natural philosophy. Stahl, phlogiston as a way of explaining metallurgical processes, pure metals are a combination of metal ores (calxes) and phlogiston. Wright, pneumatic chemistry, his painting shows birds breathing different airs, middle class mist watch the scientific experiment, transformed language of chemistry. Hales, natural philosophy of plants, developed the pneumatic trough. Black, by heating magnesium, he could make fixed air (carbon dioxide), tested air by reacting with acids and alkalis. Priestly, found nitrous oxide and dephlogisticated air (oxygen), new philosophy of nature, burning released phlogiston and plants consume it, believed in divine benevolence.

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