Energy and field important in 19th century physics. Both have a relationship to the technological context of the 19th century. 19th century british focused on fields and the idea of a mechanical model of aether: early studies of electricity and magnetism. Amber effect rubbing of crystal, causes friction leads to electricity . Lodestone from magnesia, asia minor attract/ repel each other or iron. Study of electricity and magnetism remained qualitatively explained. 1st to observe, propose that the earth is a giant magnet. Believed that electricity as outcome of effluvia a purely mechanical picture. Magnetism as outcome of sympathy and antipathy . Electricity saw great progress in the 17th and 18th century because of new instruments for electrical experiments i. e. electric friction machine (similar to amber effect) and leyden jar (mid-18th c. , stores electricity) Charles coulomb, a french engineer performed experiments (measure quantitatively the force between 2 things) in the 1780s. Electrified bodies carry positive or negative charge.