Lecture 2 Summary.docx

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Human Biology
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Maria Papaconstantinou

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Lecture Two – Christiane Nusslein-Volhard  Born in Germany  Father and mother were artists  Was very into the arts like her parents as well as plants and animals. Was encouraged by her parents to have pets  At the age of 12 she knew she wanted to be a biologist  Did not do well in high school  Attended Frankfurt University for 2 years  Moved to Eberhard Karls University, majoring in biochemistry  Worked with a chemist for her PhD – learned quantitative Methods  Received her PhDndn molecular biology from Eberhard Karls University  Was made only 2 author in a paper even though she did all of the work  Post-doc training in a developmental biology and genetics lab at Biozentrum of the University of Basel under the supervision of Walter Gehring o Developed techniques to examine mutation o Worked under David Suzuki o Was fascinated with drosophila o Met Eric Wieschaus o Her goal was to isolate genetically important genes  Completed her post-doc training in an insect embryology lab at Freiburg University under the supervision of Klaus Sander o Klaus gave women chances, but expected them to fail – encountered discrimination  Created a fate map for larva cuticle  Accepted a research position at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany. She was the group lead, but was not entrusted to run her own lab, being a female  Why use model organisms? o Easy to grow o Rapidly reproduce o Small size o Large collections of mutants o Genes and pathways are conserved o Genomes sequenced o Ethical reasons Relationship between adult and embryonic body axes  Segmentation pattern follows a hierarchical order of gene expression  Setting up of segmentation is crucial for normal development Screeningstor Drosophila Mutants  1 class: Maternally required genes – only maternal mRNAs matter; if mother has no wild type, all will be mutant. Mutant phenotypes are not active until later, so development occurs normally  Zygotically required genes – easier to scan for  Polarity: Acron  Head  Thorax  Abdomen  Telson Maternal genes affecting the pattern of the Drosophila embryo  Anterior – bicoid – deletion of head and thorax, acron transformed into telson  Posterior – oskar – deletion of abdomen (excluding telson) and pole plasm  Termin
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