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Supplementing the Learning Experience- Nov19.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Human Biology
Luc Tremblay

Laboratories 4-8 - Variable practice and contextual interference: due this Friday - Augmented feedback labs: due Nov 30 Chapter 8: Supplementing the learning experience Preview - Wakeboarding can be a transfer to snowboarding o Turning (putting more weight in the direction you want to move) o Balance - Provide cue/image/instruction, so that the learner is ready for the learning experience. o Help the learner direct their attention to relevant cues Objectives - Understand how to balance practice and rest periods to optimize learning - Know the various pitfalls to avoid when providing instructions o How can provide instruction to the learner in the best way? - Be able to synthesize the various demonstration approaches and their variations o Give a reference of correctness. - Understand how guidance can help and hinder motor learning - Know which types of skills can benefit from practice o We often try to break down skills into sub skills. We must understand why we are doing this. Chapter Plan - Massed and distributed practice - Instructions - Demonstrations - Guidance - Part-whole practice Distribution of Practice - Early- research o Definitions come from single practice design  Distributed: Rest is larger or equivalent to work  A break may facilitate performance and learning. If you do not push learner too much past physiological limits  more time devoted to learning and acquisition.  Massed: Work is larger than rest  Ex. car assembly line  Person may become overwhelmed, and does not learn as much - Examples of massed training session (during the acquisition phase, more work than rest): o Long distance running o Long distance swimming - What are negative aspects of distributed practice? o Wasted field time (access the facility, but not practicing) o Power Law of Practice: the number of hours of practice is key. The more you practice, the better your performance.  Always think about the power law of practice is the number 1 priority. Second priority is rest.  Example: Do not play a game of “Horse” in basketball training  waste of time  want to maximize motor engagement time to facilitate learning. What proportion of a training session should be spent practicing for gymnastics? - 90-100% - 70-80% - 50-60% - 30-40% - 10-20% Distribution of Practice (Snoddy, 1926) - One circuit per day o 1-day break seems to be very beneficial! Not a lot of practice per day. Performance was best. - One minute break between 30-second trials. o Performance was slightly lower than one circuit per day. o Significant increase in performance compared to no rest! - No rest between each 30-second trials.  Power Law of Practice was supported in each condition. - More recently, longer protocols - Karni et al. (1995) [see also Macquet (2001)] o Experiment: finger thumb opposition sequence  Different groups had different sequences (different conditions)  A sequential task; minimize equipment.  Told to practice skill for 1 hour per day over 5 weeks. o Graph: number of sequences per minute  X axis: Weeks of performance; Y axis: number of sequences/minute  Performance increases significantly in the first week. Reaches peak performance at week 2. o Found that brain activity changes in week 3,4,5. o Large changes in performance in first 2 weeks. Takes longer time for brain activity to be specific to the task at hand. o Looked at brain activity in motor cortex. See more activity in trained sequence versus control sequence. o Representation of motor skill in motor cortex has grown stronger. o Argue for two phases of learning:  Fast phase: changes in performance are observed.  Slow phase: changes in brain activity are observed.  Evidence that there is a clear dissociation between performance and learning. If you train only for two weeks, the representation of the skills in the brain has not changed yet.  Nothing relatively permanent - Macquet (2001) o Need REM sleep between practice sessions for brain changes to take place. o Sleep period is a key element to learning (consistent between Snoddy to Macquet). o Space things out  brain adapt  lead to relatively permanent change. Implicit Learning - Some people argue that it does not exist - Definition: Learner unaware of actual behaviour and capabilities! - Example: Pak Salto o First, have the learner do the “monkey” and swing back and forth. o Have learner look and reach for the lower bar. Have an appropriate distance between lower bar and learner. o Next, have the learner do “Tarzan”  sing facing the lower bar.. o Next Tarzan + Monkey  beginning to look like pak salto. o Make the steps comprehensible for learner; attach the skill with an image. Information - Knowledge of mechanical principles o When is it fair to expect athletes to know about mechanical principles? o When we are younger, we have an implicit understanding of mechanics that is flawed. o As a coach, must know biomechanics - At which of the following angles should the athlete release the bar? - Far above h
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