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Chapter 7.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Human Biology
Luc Tremblay

Objectives - Remember the definition of motor learning - Understand the power law of practice - Be able to apply basic principles of performance measures in order to optimize motor learning - Be able to implement retention and transfer tests - Know about types of “specificity and how they influence motor performance and learning o Highly specific tests for different skills. - Know the types of goals and how to optimize goal-setting for skill acquisition - Understand why you need to take a dedicated course on motivational psychology - Be able to synthesize models of motor learning and the associated stages of skill acquisition. Motor Learning “Motor Learning is a set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for movement. “ - Processes: Going through, “the journey” - Ex. Midterm is a accurate prediction of final grade. However, a better prediction of learning would be to have the exam at the end of the year after a long delay. Motor Learning Definitions - Processes (in the definition): CNS Activity o A set of neuronal activity in the CNS that lead to relatively permanent changes… o Performance is not learning o Helping athletes identify and correct errors  Processes related to skill acquisition o Learning a more difficult motor skill does not mean you are forgetting an easy one  May consolidate separate skills into a single one forget individual (easier) parts Power Law of Practice (Snoddy 1926) - Law of diminishing return - Most improvement at the beginning Schmidt & Lee (2005) - X-axis is a log scale. - To explain how someone is learning/acquiring a skill (in a mathematical model)  have log number of trials against the log scale. Power Law of Practice - Cycle time on the Y-axis, and Number of items produced on the X-axis. (Crossman, 1959) - Individual rolling cigars - Individual still improved (slightly) between 1MIL and 10 MIL cigars. o Perceptually, however, the change is so small you no longer tell that improvement is taking place. - Which of these performance curves is showing the most improvements? o 5% curve o 15% curve o 30% curve o All of the above o None of the above -  Critera for assessment is very important. In the 30% curve, the target is larger. The individuals start off with a high level of performance. - These are the same people performing the same task with different criteria. - The task involves keeping a ball on either 30%, 15%, or 5% of the plate. - 30% curve  show high level over time because - 30% curve will have least sensitivity to performance change. Measuring the motor learning - Measurement sensitivity: performance vs. learning Measuring Motor Learning: - 5 points: swoosh - 4 points: In - 3 points: touched rim - 2 points: touch board within orange square - 1 point: touch board  Use a more sensitive measurement to perceive changes in practice.  Change the size of target with practice. Sensitivity does not have to be the same. Build a sensitivity score, and change scoring system with levels. - When you set up a program, must set up sensitivity scheme, criteria, motivation, etc. Measuring Motor Learning - The typical phys.ed. approach: this is not ideal o Step 1: present skill o Step 2: allow practice o Step 3: evaluate performance - Assessment must be regular and there must be constant feedback. - For example, you may add Step 0: Fitness test, so you can evaluate improvement. Situation - Ali and Bailey: Basketball Free Throw. - Who is the better teacher? While A ends up at a higher level, B made the most improvement. Measuring Motor Learning: - Pre-test: Research vs. Practice - To say that someone has learned, you must have a pre-test value. This is because the definition of learning is about change of the capability of movement. Measuring Motor Learning - Outcome vs. process measures - Troubleshoot the mistake  look at process not outcome. - Motivation, feedback is relevant to the process. However, it is much harder to provide feedback during the process, and much easier in the outcome phase. - Allow the performer to enjoy playing in the sport. What is most important: Process or Outcome? - 100% Process - 75% Process- 25% Outcome - 50%-50% - 25% Process- 75% Outcome - 100% Outcome Measuring Motor Learning - Start vs. End = change in performance o Can equate for the amount of previous practice that a person has. o Convert a person’s score to a log-log scale to assess improvement.  Can assess people with different absolute performance. - End: Absolute performance. o Even if an individual has improved greatly over the last few months, if they cannot meet the final goal, it is useless.  Ex. Firefighters need to achieve a certain performance.  Classroom setting: need to have a certain absolute performance when graduating in order to be an effective doctor, etc. Retention-Transfer approach: - Xaxis: Blocks of 10 practice trials, then retention tests - Y-axis: number of targets hit per block. - The new method has a higher start level than the old meth
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