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ML- September 17th and 24th.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Human Biology
Luc Tremblay

Motor Learning Lecture 2 Lab Due Dates: Fridays, before midnight st - Basic Measures- Sept. 21 - Performance Measures- Sept. 28 th - Multisensory- Oct. 5 th - Performance and Learning- Oct. 12  Not on midterm Getting Started How do we design learning environments? We want someone to perform AND learn as best as possible. - The learning environment must be EFFORTFUL at a physiological and a cognitive level. o Some drills train the muscles, while others train the sensory-motor and cognitive-motor processes. - In this course, we will answer the following question: How can we improve the SENSORY-MOTOR processes in LEARNING (as opposed to performing). Chapter 1 Objectives: - Know the origins of motor behaviour (fields and people) o Know the names and dates in lecture - Comprehend and apply the 4 task classification criteria - Evaluate Gentile’s 2D classification system - Know and understand Newell’s model - Distinguish learning from performance The Ubiquity of Motion - Everything we do on a day-to-day basis requires muscle contraction ($5 example) o There is a spatial goal. The muscles must contract the right amount. If they contract too much or not enough, you do not produce the desired actions. - Innate vs. Acquired o Some motor skills are innate while others are acquired o Sometimes, you must voluntarily inhibit a reflex to facilitate a desired action. o Staring: Automatic AND learning processes. Most eye movements are involuntary (we divert attention to sounds, etc.). o Many skills require voluntary muscle actions (ex. gymnastics) Origins of Motor Behaviour (Bryan and Harter, 1897) - Research represents 90 weeks of work (unique! Due to limited funding, most data is short) o Much more realistic as intervention (in learning) takes a long time. - Graph: The acquisition of Morse Code o You can send more letters per minute than you can receive in Morse Code. o Power Law of Practice: The logarithm of the reaction time for a particular task decreases linearly with the logarithm of the number of practice trials taken. Qualitatively: Increased practice has diminishing returns. o Between weeks 16-20, there seems to be a plateau in receiving. We can reach performance plateaus. Explanation: After this plateau, we begin encoding symbols as words instead of characters, which speeds up the process of receiving. Origins of Motor Behaviour (Woodworth, 1899) - What do trajectories look like? He did not have a motion trajectory system. - Experiment: Following a metronome, trace a line from top to bottom. - There are some trajectory discontinuities towards the end of the movement. There is acceleration towards the target (ballistic phase), then, as you approach the target, there are some corrections that are taking place (current control phase). - This is a kinematic analysis: displacement over time. Neurophysiologic Approach to Motor Control (Sherrington, Nobel Prize 1932) - Interested in proprioception (He coined the term). o Very hard to study because it is within the human. It is very difficult to demonstrate. We would need to lacerate the dorsal roots of the spinal cord. Why did psychologists abandon motor behaviour research in the 1960s? - Because Hull’s Drive Theory was wrong! o Drive theory: motivation theory based on the principle that organisms are born with certain psychological needs. Needs activate drives, which in turn active behaviour. Behaviour is therefore goal directed, and achieving it has a survival value. - Most impactful paper came in 1975. This is a very young field; not an exact science. - Motor behaviour arose from the field of psychology. Franklin Henry (1904-1993) - Kept motor behaviour in the research field - “Father of Modern Motor Behaviour in North America” Related Fields - Neuroscience, etc. Motor Behaviour can be subdivided into motor control, motor learning, and motor development. - Motor Control: The study of neural, physical, and behavioral aspects of movement. - Motor Learning: A set of internal processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for responding. - Motor Development: Classes of Motor Skills 1) Gross vs. Fine - Everything is relative. Is one skill more gross/fine relative to another? - Ex. Kicking a ball (gross) vs. walking on a beam (middle) vs. foot painting (fine) - Define learning environment differently to facilitate the acquisition of different skills. 2) Discrete, Serial, Continuous - More difficult to implement motor learning in continuous skills! It is much easier in discrete. 3) Open vs. Closed - Open skill: The environment is unpredictable (ex. hockey) - Closed skill: The environment is predictable (ex. archery) 4) Motor vs. Cognitive - Motor skill: Decision making minimized, motor control maximized - Cognitive skill: Decision making maximized, motor control minimized Gentile’s 2D Classification What is Gentile’s 2D Classification? - Considers both the requirements of: o 1) The action (body transport and object manipulation) o 2) The demands of the environment  Degree to which the environment is stationary or in motion (“regulatory variability”)  High for open skills; low for closed skills  Extent to which environment changes from one performance attempt to the next (“context variability)  Possible in both open and closed skills. - The two components of each dimension are combined in various ways to form 16 task categories.  Designed orginially for physical therapy settings. - In table, complexity increases from left to right and top to bottom. o Easiest: maintain erect position (no body transport, no object manipulation) and context is always a therapist’s office (environment is stationary and not changing from one visit to the next). o Hardest: Tossing and catching a beanbag (object manipulation) with a partner while walking (body transport). On each occasion, the partner would toss the beanbag (environment in motion; not stable) a different way each time (changes from one performance to the next). - Complete Exercise 1.2 Classifying Skills in Two Dimensions Newell’s Model (1986) - Alternative to Theory of Attribution - Success/Failure has to do with the integration of individual constraints (function or structural), task constraints, and environmental constraints. - Ex. Dunking a basketball o Individual constraints  Functional: Unable to jump  Structural: Height o Task Constraints: Can’t dribble. o Environmental Constraints: Game situation - **Not much you can do about individual constraints (functional and structural). You have MUCH MORE CONTROL over task and environmental constraints. - This model is a good way of identifying the problem. In case of failure, which factors should be investigated first? Task. Learning vs. Performance - Motor Performance: directly observable o Varies with motivation, focus, and fatigue - Motor Learning: not directly observable. It is inferred from performance. o Internal process o Performance stability. Are you capable of repeatedly producing the same level of accuracy? Motor Learning Definition: A set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to a relatively permanent change in the ca
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