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HMB200H1 (140)
Lecture 19

HMB200 2014 Lecture 19.pdf

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Human Biology
Course Code
John Yeomans

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  Lecture  19:  Association  Cortex   -­‐ understanding  of  words  (heard,  seen)  occur  in:  left  temporal   lobe  (Wernicke’s  area,  angular  gyrus  (dorsal))   § then  transferred  to  action  areas  in  the  Broca’s  area  (left   association  cortex  for  motor  processing)   § primary  auditory  à  auditory  association  à  motor   association  in  Broca’s  à  action  (voluntary  motor   responses  in  BOTH  hemispheres)     Studies  of  Association  Cortex   -­‐ Human  Brain  Injury:  neurology  and  neuropsychology   -­‐ Recording  of  Monkey  Neurons:  Prima ry  Neurophysiology   • Parietal  cortex:  information  about  location   • Temporal  cortex:  information  about  objects  and  specific   stimuli   -­‐ Human  Brain  imaging  fMRI  and  PET     Parietal  Cortex   • Smallest  association  area   • Primary  Somatosensory  Cortex  (S1,2,3)   • Movement  from  Primary  somatosensory  cortex  (S1)  to  somatosensory  association  cortex  (SA)(perception  of  3D   objects)  to  posterior  parietal  area   • Multimodal  =  also  combine  with  information  from  V1  (primary  visual  cortex)   • S1à  SAà  posterior  parietal  area  à  combined  area  ß  VA  ß  V1   • Taste  (43)  and  Vestibular  (40)  (with  insular  cortex)   • Below  S1   • 43:  primary  taste  sensory  (from  inside  the  mouth  opposed  to  outside  of  body)     • just  behind  this  is  40  à  vestibular  information  (movement  of  the  head)   • just  above  the  Sylvian  fissure   • Somatosensory  Forms:  3D,  Body  Image.   • Somatotopic  maps  are  most  precise  in  the  S1  (primary  somatosensory  cortex)   • Moving  away  and  into  somatosensory  association  cortex  (SA) –  see  processing  of  3D  forms   • Lesions  of  SA:  lose  ability  to  reconstruct  3D  objects  by  touch   • Lesions  of  S1:  lost  ability  to  touch  something  by  location   • SA:  what  body  part  is  yours,  3D  form  of  external  parts   • Lesions?  Problems  of  how  body  is  shaped   • Errors  of  body  image  and  what’s  around  the  body   • Primary  areas  are  more  for  location   • Eye-­‐hand  coordination.  Movement  perception.   • 3D  space  perception  (ventral  parietal).   • Progression:  From  locus  to  form  to  movement  in  space.     Posterior  Parietal  Lesions   • Spatial  Attention  (visual,  somatosensory  and  auditory)   • Multimodal  information     • Reaching  for  objects  in  space  (b all)  à  putting  together  of  visual  space  (moving  object  coming  towards   you)  and  tactile  space  (reach  and  grasp  object)  involves  hand -­‐eye  coordination   • Calculate  where  things  are  moving  in  space,  and  calculate  own  body  image   • Slow  pursuit  movement  –  can  predict  where  things  will  be  by  calculating  movement  perception   • Multimodal  association  cortex   à  behind  somatosensory   • Hand-­‐eye  coordination  put  together  in  the  posterior  parietal  area  where  visual  and  tactile   information  come  together   • Perception  of  tactile  and  ov erall  visual  space  around  you   • Lesions:  contralateral  neglect,  amorphosynt hesis   • Attention  and  perception  on  things  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  body  are  lost  with  posterior  parietal  lesions   • Ability  to  pay  attention  to  things  (Especially  things  that  combine  v isual-­‐tactile-­‐auditory  information),   ability  to  keep  attention  on  something  =  lost   • Difficultly  in  pursuit  following       • Movement  perception  calculations  are  difficult   • contralateral  neglect:  Difficulty  drawing  things  in  the  contralateral  space   • cannot  draw  a  picture  of  their  own  face,  or  only  draw  half   • pay  attention  to  the  intact  side,  neglect  lesioned  side   • Movement  perception:  hand -­‐eye  coordination  and  smooth  pursuit     Temporal  Association  Cortex   • V1  à  visual  association  areas  à  various  areas  for  identifying  objec ts   • Important  for  identifying  objects   • Object  Recognition  (Inferotemporal).   • Damage:  inability  to  identify  objects  (other  than  faces)   • Facial  Perception  (Fusiform  gyrus)   • Damage  to  Fusiform  area:  poor  face  perception     • Inability  to  identify  people’s  faces   • Naming  of  objects  (lateral  and  superior  temporal)  Wernicke’s   area   • Visual  association  area  extending  out  from  Wernicke’s  area  (lateral  side  of  temporal  lobe)   • Object  recognition  areas   • Agnosias:  Inability  to  recognize  objects  (along  with  pos terior  parietal  cortex  lesions)   • Many  different  kinds  of  agnosias   • Lesions  of  ventral  temporal  lobe   • Difficulty  knowing  specific  letters  =  difficulty  reading  =  dyslexia  (Agnosia  specific  to  reading)   • Agnosia  in  identifying  people   –  fusiform  lesions   • Progression  from  V1  to  temporal  pol e:  From  features  to  forms  to   appropriate  actions  (involves   subjects  that  are   important  for  survival  and  reproduction)   • General  theory:  going  from  location   à  object  à  emotional  perception  à  appropriate  action   • Flow  from  posterior  tip  of  temporal  lobe  à  anterior  tip  of  the  temporal  lobe   • When  you  get  to   temporal  pole:  important  area  in  communication  with  the  Frontal  Cortex   • emotional  actions  and  social  propriety   -­‐  Temporal  pole  communicates  with  the  Frontal  pole   (communicates  for  highest  emotional  and  social  resp onses  to  objects  that  are  important  for   survival  and  behavior  planning)     Frontal  Association  Cortex   • frontal  lobe  =  largest  of  all  cortical  association  areas   • general  rule:  when  you  go  from  lower  mammals  to  higher  mammals  =  animals  with  large  primary  visual   cortex   (little  association  cortex)  to  animals  dominated  by  large  multimodal  association  cortical  areas   • progression  from  primary  to  multimodal  association  =  progression  from  simpler  mammals  to  higher   primates   • especially  clear  in  frontal  association  cortex     • this  area  is  enlarged  the  most  in  the  primate  brain   • distinguishes  human  cortex  from  chimpanzee  cortex   • Primary  motor  cortex:  area  for  specific  actions   à  has  most  detailed  map  of  actions  producing  voluntary  movement     • This  huge  primary  motor  strip  is  precise   in  controlling  specific  voluntary  actions   • Motor  Association  Cortex   • In  general,  the  motor  strip  in  front  of  the  primary  motor  cortex  is  involved  in  various  responses   • Largest  a
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