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Lecture 17

Lecture 17 - Mental Disorders & Limbic Systems

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Human Biology
John Yeomans

HMB200H1S L17 March 13 2012Work on learning of fear within amygdala circuits Mental DisordersLimbic SystemsEx PTSDAll seem to involve amygdala disruptions Fear learning seems to occur in lateralbasal lateral amygala then Posttraumatic stress used to be called shell shock descending paths to hypothalbrainstemFear brought on by specific trauma eg violence or accidentFear experiences influenced by context surrounding circumstances Nightmares info from hippocampus o Very often in ppl w neardeath experiences violent attacksFear treated by many drugs accidentslongterm PTS Nightmares reliving experience fear related to situations Pharmacology of FearAnxiety o Debilitating to normal sleep emotional adaptationsdontFear inhibited by benzodiazepinestranquilizers GABAa agonists want relationships w ppl that remind them of events in centraloutput amygdala on cannabis recs CB1 o Dont want to talk to family can last for yearsendocannabinoid recs in lateralbasolateral amygdala for fearUnable to perform normal duties after WW1 conditioning also found on CCK interneurons in amygdala in o Many students died 2540 of frontline soldiers unable to amygdalarecover o Ex give before surgery then dont need anesthesia o After WW1 psych department at UofT converted from bhvral o Get thru surgery wo uncomfortable side effects department to treating shellshock victims o Activate inhibitory GABAa recso 25 of current soldiers coming from Afghanistan have PTSD o Useful in shorterm since addictive millions of dollars spent by CAUSA o Cannabis feel more relaxed less anxious about circumstancesTrying to combine psychotherapytranquilizers ethanol has similar effects o Extinction therapy more targeted to amygdala than justFear very much dependent on activation of amygdala GABAa recs Fear activated by NMDA or CCKb agonists in amygdala o Reconsolidation Most effective o NMDA glutamate rec activation for turning on fearGive tranquilizer bring back to situation o CCK as a peptide makes panic attack in humansblockingRevive experience make seem less frighteningfind out if blocks panic attacks but not endogenous panic attacks can get experience removed by reliving o When inject CCKlike peptides into amygdala of animals inclEx Computer goggles to relive visuallymore positive than Ratspaniclike effects thru nightmares which makes worse o Prevent systemicamygdala effects of CCK by using CCKb recDrugs removing learning of amygdala blockersStressanxiety activated by CRH in BNST Generalized anxiety o Corticotropin releasing hormone also produced in amygdalaPersistent worriesdiscomfort with life goes to recs in extended amygdala o CCK gaba neurons have effect upstr
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