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Lecture 16

Lecture 16

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Human Biology
John Yeomans

HMB200H1S L16; March. 7, 2012  Conclude: Vasopression 1a recs in VP affect long-term pair bonding Sex, Gender and the Brain (continued) relationships Gender Identity Oxytocin & Attachment  Some homosexual males feel male, some feel female  Oxytocin in mother helps her feel bonding to child  Central subdivision of Bed N. of Stria Terminalis (BNST) 44% o Or else: mother wouldn’t want to help child get milk larger in males than females  Suckling  tactile pathway  released in nursing (let-down reflex)   6 transgendered males have smaller cBNST like females maternal bonding in rodents & sheep (can smell offspring thru o A transgendered female showed a larger cBNST like males pheromones) o Transgendered males have no change in their hypothal  Intranasal oxytocin in humans  greater “trust” in evaluating o Swaab faces, less amygdala activity  No BNST difs in homosexual males o Oxytocin recs in Amygdala (central nucleus) inhibit amygdala o But have difs in hypothal fear responses  greater trust of strangers  No INAH difs in transgendered males  Central n: where all output sent from o No relation to preference o Humans aren’t influenced that highly by this because need a lot  Are these correlations causal? of it so a little can get thru  But shows we are still affected by chemicals & aren’t as o Only a correlation noticed, not causal relationships o Hypothal dictates sexual bhvrs independent from chemical processes as we first believed o Limbic system dictates your gender identity – difs in BNST  Oxytocin recs in Amygdala & Hippocampus o Pathways from Paraventricular n (PVN) & Supraoptic n. BNST Size Difs  dictate gender identity (SON)  Females have higher oxytocin recs than males?? o Rate of anxiety very high in females, could be related to a decrease in oxytocin recs  Bed N. of Stria Terminalis (BNST): in deep limbic system, involved in emotional learning o Darker, more oval-shaped in males  A,B: Indicates BNST size dictates gender o
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