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Lecture 25- Population Genetics

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Human Biology
Christian Campbell

Tuesday, April 7, 2009 -Lecture #25: Genetics Amongst Friends. Today were going to consider population genetics. So this is an introduction to population genetics. Note: He thought he did a poor job explaining some concepts last lecture so hes going to go over a few of them in detail again today. I had a bit of trouble lining up the slides from Lecture 24 with todays lecture. Hopefully, theyre lined up correctly but use your discretion when studying. -Lets take stock: Heres a slide we see at the beginning of every lecture just to remind us what weve been doing here over the course of the past 13 lectures. Weve been considering the inheritance of traits & specifically, we started w Mendels simple rules of inheritance. What Mendel was doing was looking at the way simple traits were inherited, these traits that showed diametrically opposed facets if you will. So, for ex, the long vs. the short stems. He was able to derive some nice, simple rules to describe how such traits would be inherited from 1 generation to the next. Thats where we started & thats what weve been modifying as the course has progressed. -So weve been elaborating upon it & adding wrinkles to help us better understand this kind of variation. And that is the more natural variation we see in the world that doesnt show these discrete traits but rather more continuous traits & we consider them in the context of families QTL in particular and how one dealt with that. -In last lecture, we moved on to how one begins to make better associations bw segregation of alleles at a locus & segregation of the traits that were interested in. And thats where we finished off last lecture was considering how one made associations bw particular loci on a linkage group & a trait that showed continuous variation. The example that he provided here with humans can be anything it can be height, body size, body mass index, etc, & correlating that w specific locations on a linkage group loci on the basis of association bw trait & molecular marker that marked a particular place on the chromosome. -He finished by talking about haplotype analysis. Recall haplotype analysis is when youre looking at the maternal & paternal contribution in each individual half of its genetic material. So were taking a look at all of the alleles in an individual & asking Is there a correlation bw having 1 allele, being homozygous for it & being at 1 extreme of the trait, being a heterozygote & being in the middle for the trait, & having the other allele & being at the other extreme of that normally distributed continuous trait? -He also talked about the concept of association studies as sociat in g segregation of the alleles w the segregation of the traits. -He talked about how one might go about doing this starting w pedigrees. The idea being that one is doing in pedigrees is establishing a correlation w what is going on w given alleles & what is going w at the trait of interest. -Here what were doing in this particular pedigree is, first of all, looking at parents. Its a very short 2-generation pedigree were looking at. Mom & dad each display molecular markers that are indicative of maybe 2 loci or maybe 1 locus. Here we have a marker for A & a marker for B & D, something for E & F, nothing for G,
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