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University of Toronto St. George
Human Biology
Stephen Wright

MIDTERM two weeks from today Calculators ALLOWED Sample midterm will be posted same format as actual midterm Do studying then practise with midterm questions Use old exams to practise AFTER STUDIED 50 minutes so careful timing Additional practise questions will be posted COVERS EVERYTHING UP TO LEC11 (Tuesday before the exam) o Tuesday lecture will be half new content, and half review Experimental evidence form Morgans lab genes located on chromosomes Unusual progeny o White eyed females and red eyed males o Linking microscope observations with the progeny Chromosomes separate under microsope o Chromosomal evidence that genes located on chromosomes Sex determination in Drosophila Based on how many copies of autosomes relative to sex chromosomes o 1 X and 2 autosomes maleness o 2 X and 2 autosomes femaleness X chromosome making protein; autosomes make blue protein o These proteins dimerize o Excess of red proteins red dimerize with each other, fruit fly is thus female o Males do not have excess of red Different types if nondisjunction events o Btw humans and Drosophila Turtles sex determined by environment Y chromosome in males why is it that Y and no X dies? Essential genes on X chromosome absent from Y chromosome Y chromosome is a degenerate version of X chromosome o Originally, very similar, but Y chromosome degenerated and lost several essential genes Y chromosomes have genes specific to male phenotype, fertility Crucial validation of chromosome theory Dosophila and other animals instrumental because of presence of distinct sex chromosomes, despite being homologous o So crucial physical demonstration that genes located on chromosomes Gene controlled red v. white eyes found on X chromosomes Can now visualize genes and locate them on chromosomes - geneticists inferred from crosses and linking up phenotypes without todays technology
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