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Lecture 3

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Human Biology
Stephen Wright

Lecture 323 The Molecular Basis of Mendelian GeneticsUse singlegene inheritance to investigate a genes function so have to know the molecular nature of wildtype and mutant alleles at both the structuralthe functional levelStructural differences between alleles at the molecular levelgenes come in different formsALLELESAlleles ie Aa are identical in most of their sequences different only at one or several nucleotides go the 1000s that make up the geneAllele changes because of rare chemical accidentnew allele is createdMUTATIONcan occur anywhere along the nucleotide sequence of a geneMutation the process that produces a gene or a chromosome set differing from that of the wild type the gene or chromosome set that results from such a processMutation could be change in the identity of a single nucleotide OR the deletion of one or more nucleotides or even the addition of one or more nucleotidesMany ways a gene can be changed by a mutationMutational damage can occur at any one of many different sitesAlleles with mutationsRECESSIVE because usually only takes one copy of the wild type gene to provide normal functionMolecular Aspects of Gene TransmissionReplication of alleles during S phase1st step in transmission of a gene to a subsequent generation of cells or organisms is the formation os sister chromatidsprelude to mitosismeiosisPrimary genomic component of each chromosome is a DNA moleculereplicated during Sphase which is a comes before meiosis and mitosis Replication accurate processall genetic information is duplicated whether is wild type of mutantMeiosis and mitosis at the molecular levelThe replication of DNA during the S phase produces two copies of each allele that can
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