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Human Biology
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Stephen Wright

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th LECTURE 15 March 8 MUST USE THE PREIMPLANTATION ARTICLE in introduction Cannot determine what genes or loci underly the quantitative trait How to find THE TRAITS underlying IS THE FOCUS OF THESE 2 LECTURES A quantitative effect attributed to TWO OR MORE important genes (typo on slide) Called quantitative trait loci Identified o 180 genes and most of them are additive effect genes that contribute to human height o BUT these genes only make up 10% of phenotypic variation seen between individuals o So where do the rest of the genes that contribute to genetic variation are? o HOW COULD THEY DETERMINE GENES THAT Underly A QUANTITAtive trait BY GENETIC MAPPING TECHNIQUES AND BY ASSOCIATING MOLECULAR MARKERS WITH THIS TRAIT Molecular markers genes and the different genotypes that associated with them Alleles and their different combinations that arise Change in genotype or differences in genotype that can be followed at molecular level by gel electrophoresis, by looking at DNA and proteins looking at different banding patterns by sequencing DNA itself o Then use statistics to identify more than one QTL at one time To identify QTL: STEP1: cross individuals inbred but differing at trait of interest In example, tomatoes Genetically identical but differ significantly at the trait of interest, size F1 individuals in between F1 crossed to get segregating F2 population Genetic variation is ZERO so any phenotypic variation seen in individuals is PART OF THE ENVIRONMENT F2 due to both environmental and genetic influence STEP2- determine frequency in F2 Group individuals by size Bell curve followed STEP3 extract DNA from each of F2 individuals and genotype each for a set of marker-loci distributed throughout the genome or along all the chromosomes do for all individuals Genotype each individual at ALL marker loci, including SNPs, FLPs, microsatellites
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