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Human Biology

Chapter 6PSYC1211042011Experiencing PrejudiceResearchers have taken the view that prejudice originated and was maintained within the majority perceiver of the minority target People try to fit in with the majority so they will not be singled out for ridicule or treated negatively by othersoOvert in children who have not learned socially sophisticated methods of disapproval oAdults negative evaluations take the form of subtle negative comments rude behaviour etc Stigma oUnusual characteristics that engender negative evaluations Group identification oResearch indicates that individual that face external threats show stronger ingroup identification oDoosje and Ellemers 1997 Found that people differ in the degree to which they identify with their stigmatized group High identifiers are more likely to associate themselves with their group even when it has a negative image High identifiers derive much of their self esteem from their identification as a group member Low identifiers are much more likely to dissociate themselves from the group especially when it has a negative image oMore individualistic and opportunistic they will only identify with the group when it has a positive image Stereotype threat oIndividuals in stereotyped groups often find themselves vigilant about not behaving in way that confirm stereotypes about ones group Engage in performance limiting behaviour in order to provide them with a ready excuse for their expected poor performance on the stereotype relevant dimensionoResearch indicates that for many stereotypes the negative implications of confirming the stereotype are important enough that they can impair ones ability to behave in counter stereotypic way Anxiety one feels in thinking about possibly confirming the stereotype can be impair ones performance on the stereotype relevant dimension Recent research suggests that stereotype threat has its effects through the mediating influence of a drop in working memory capacity Schmader and Johns 2003oEffects of stereotype threat are especially likely to occur in people who strongly identify with the group about which the stereotype exists Recent research shows that people under stereotype threat actually fare worse physiologically than their non threatened counterparts Blasovich Spencer Quinn and Steele 2001Black participants in threatened condition showed higher blood pressure than non threatened counterparts oStereotype life Walton and Cohen 2003Nonstigmatized persons seem to experience a performance enhancement when they engage in a downward comparison between themselves and a member of a stereotyped outgroup oEvidence accumulated to date indicates support for the notion that stereotypes about ones group can impair ones performance on salient ego and identity relevant tasksDisidentification oIndividuals disengage their identity from the achievement domain in question such that their self esteem and sense of self competence is preserved and shielded from the negative effects of associating identity with performance on a stereotype relevant dimension
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