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HMB342H1 (3)
Lecture 5

Lecture 5 notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Human Biology
Christine Burton

HMB342 Lecture 5 Feb 811 Risk: Looking Backward (Ch. 6) Revisiting Cohort Studies Good, direct method for estimating risk, but drawbacks: 1) Often few people develop the outcome but all must be followed. 2) Cohort studies are resource-intensive: time, effort, and money. 3) More resource-intensive (inefficient) for uncommon outcomes. More efficient cohorts: Retrospective cohort & case-cohort, or the case-control method. Recall: Anatomy of a Cohort Study Cohort is assembled (none have outcome of interest, but all are at risk for the outcome). Risk factor is identified & cohort segregated: 1) With the risk factor; 2) without the risk factor. All members of the cohort are then observed over time to see which experience the outcome. Rates of outcome are then estimated for the exposed vs unexposed members of the cohort. Anatomy of a Case-Control Study (retrospective studies) In the present, cases (all have outcome) and controls are identified (none have outcome). Control = individual as similar as possible to each case but have not developed the outcome. Look back in time to measure frequency of exposure to risk factor in each of case and controls. Rates of exposure to the outcome are then estimated for the case and control & compared to estimate the risk (but not the RR) of developing the outcome from the exposure. 1
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