IMM250H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Pasteurization, Typhoid Fever, Humoral Immunity

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IMM250 Lecture 1: The Immune System from historical to modern perspectives
General overview of the immune system
The immune system is a system of tissues, cells and soluble products that
recognize, attack and destroy foreign entities that can endanger our health when
they enter our bodies
o Major classes of pathogens
o Some of the microbes that live around us are pathogens, that means they
cause disease when they get inside us and start to replicate
o The virus is extremely small in comparison to the others (picture is
ordered from smallest to largest )
o Obligate intercellular organisms depend on humans to live
o Protozoal parasite
I.e. malaria, passed by mosquitos
Must adapt to the different types of hosts
o All these pathogens can trigger immune responses. Not surprisingly
different types of immunity are needed to deal with these different
infectious agents.
o The way we react to an encounter with a pathogen depends on the
nature of the invader and on the site that is being invaded
The immune system must recognize and respond to internal threats
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o Whenever any foreign entity enters the body and poses a danger to us
internally, the immune system has to first recognize the entity, respond
to it, and then return to a resting state asal state
o The symptoms from diseases/sickness usually arises when it is being
engaged by the body and immune response
o Recognition is a challenge because pathogens are varied in structure, can
mutate quickly and can sometimes have structural components that look
like host structures.
Mechanisms of defense against infection
o To protect us from intruders, we have two interrelated types of
immunity:
Innate immunity
First line of defense against infectious agents
Cells and molecules such as phagocytes and complement
can make rapid responses that may eradicate the
infection.
Adaptive immunity
Later adaptive responses may be generated if the
infectious agent is not killed by innate immunity
Cells and molecules such as lymphocytes and antibodies
take longer to become effective, but adaptive immunity
can also lead to a state of long-lasting resistance to re-
infection termed immunological memory
o Innate and adaptive immune responses are mediated by our white blood
cells also known as leukocytes.
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Mechanisms of defense against infection - timeline
o Barriers
The stomach is acidic which is a poor environment for organisms
to grow
The skin has multiple layers of cells to protect against penetration
of organs
o Innate
Recruited to the site of infection
o Adaptive
Called if the innate immunity does not successfully treat the
infection
Give long lasting immunity
Milestones in the history of Immunology
Immunitas = to be exempt from (Latin)
o Originally referred to Roman senators being exempted from public
service and legal prosecution, then extended to other social groups
Iuit the efeed to eig eept fo illess o disease
o Microbes and our responses to them have shaped our evolution and also
the course of history
o History is not just a result of social, economic and military events. Over
the ages that preceded the implementation of practices that prevent
infections, such as sanitations, isolation of the sick, antibiotics, microbes
have shaped the course of history.
o Lets stat fo the eaig of iuit.
Infection and immunity have shaped the course of history
o First instance of documentation of immunity/infection
o First concept of immunity in the context of disease:
o The Peloponnesian war between Sparta and Athens, 430 B.C.
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Document Summary

Imm250 lecture 1: the immune system from historical to modern perspectives. I. e. malaria, passed by mosquitos: must adapt to the different types of hosts, all these pathogens can trigger immune responses. Innate: recruited to the site of infection, adaptive, called if the innate immunity does not successfully treat the infection, give long lasting immunity. Immunitas = to be exempt from (latin: originally referred to roman senators being exempted from public service and legal prosecution, then extended to other social groups. I(cid:373)(cid:373)u(cid:374)it(cid:455) the(cid:374) (cid:396)efe(cid:396)(cid:396)ed to (cid:271)ei(cid:374)g (cid:858)e(cid:454)e(cid:373)pt f(cid:396)o(cid:373) ill(cid:374)ess o(cid:396) disease(cid:859: microbes and our responses to them have shaped our evolution and also the course of history, history is not just a result of social, economic and military events. Over the ages that preceded the implementation of practices that prevent infections, such as sanitations, isolation of the sick, antibiotics, microbes have shaped the course of history: let(cid:859)s sta(cid:396)t f(cid:396)o(cid:373) the (cid:373)ea(cid:374)i(cid:374)g of i(cid:373)(cid:373)u(cid:374)it(cid:455).

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