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IMM250Lecture NotesLecture 1Immunology a historical perspectiveBlack death bubonic plagueResponsible for 3060 of European deaths from 13501400Vectoran organism that carries a causative agent for infectionThe disease vector for the bubonic plague was Yersinia PestisRats carried the fleas which harboured the Yersinia Pestis bacteriumThere may have been proof of immune mediated tolerance a receptor mutation associated with the bubonic plague found out through retrospective studiesAbu Bakr ibn Zakaria RaziFirst to distinguish smallpox and measles and the first to characterize asthma as a diseaseAvicennaKnown as the father of modern medicineInsights on how to run a clinical trial experimental medicine procedures evidence based medicine and categorized the nature of infectious diseasesACQUIRED IMMUNITY the ability to resist reinfection from a known pathogenThe practice of variolationThis was the common practice of inoculating someone with the virus of smallpox in order to confer immunity to the diseaseoIdentification of the virus was not exact however and the processoften thus led to death and severe diseaseJenner1796Noted the strange coincidence that milkmaids were immune to smallpox but instead contracted a much less severe variation called cowpoxTheorized that the pus from one of the characteristic blisters developed by the milkmaids would contain a milder form of the smallpox virusIn 1796 he inoculated an 8 year old child with the milder smallpox virus from the milkmaids and subsequently exposed the child to the smallpox virus Immunity had been conferredLouis Pasteur1880s Attenuated germ cultures vaccines are bornspoiled attenuated cholera cultures Pasteur could induce virulent Using cholera acquired immunity in chickensThis was further true for cattle anthrax and rabiesNamed the process vaccination vacca for cowfrom cowpox in honour of Jenners workKochs Postulates1880sRobert Koch184319101The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease and should NOT be found in healthy animals2The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture3The cultured microorganisms should cause disease when introduced in a new healthy organism4The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated diseased experimental host and identified as being IDENTICAL to the original specific causative agentBacteria1Gram Positive ie Listeria Monocytogenes cause of listeriosis2Gram Negative ie Salmonella Enteriditus common cause of food poisoningNote Both are single celled units that respond to antibioticsVirusesie Human Immunodeficiency virus HIVcause of AIDSInfluenza viruscause of influenzaNote Dont respond to antibiotics subvert cellular function and are combated with antiviralsFungiie Pneumocystis cariniicauses of opportunistic infections by lung alveolusCandida Albicanscauses thrush and more systemic infectionsNote A problem for immunocompromised individualsParasitesie Helmunth worm or ProtozoansNote not usually a problemusually seen in tropical climatesInnate immune systemStop gap for adaptive immunityAdaptive immunityNot as commonly spread among organisms evolutionarily ie adaptive immunity is limited to vertebrate animalsImmune systemImmunity the ability to resist infectionImmune system The tissues cells and molecules involved in protecting the host and responding to foreign antigenImmune system is also the primary defence against pathogensAfter clearance of an infection an individual is said to be immuneConsequences of NO immune responseSevere Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome SCIDoNo natural immunity no adaptive immune systemMechnikoffDiscovered phagocytosis through experimentation on the larvae of starfishCellular immunology Cellular mechanisms to effect an immune responseBehringUsed the serum in blood of infected patients to confer immunity to othersHumoral immunityPaul ErlichAntibodies are naturally occurring macromoleculesSpecificity for antigen and complement depends on the presence of certain stereochemical configurations specific to the cellular interactionSir Peter MadawanSkin grafts how the immune system distinguishes between foreign and innate antigenSir Frank McFarlane BurnettClonal selection hypothesisCesar MillsteinAntibodies undergo hypermutationselection thus creating a high affinity for a an antibody
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