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Lecture

immunology lecture 1.docx

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Department
Immunology
Course
IMM250H1
Professor
Liliana Clemenza
Semester
Winter

Description
Immune System • The Black Death o Deadliest pandemics in Europe in 1300s o Plague spread through the trade routes from bacteria on rats  (Yersiniapestis) • Abu Mohammed was first to disgnose smallpox vs. measles, allergic asthma,  understood fever is a mechanism for fighting infection • Avicenna > father of modern medicine • Variolation > old practice of inoculating someone with smallpox to produce  immunity to disease > lead to vaccinations • Louis Pasteur > attenuated germ cultures • Small pox vaccination started in 1796, in 1979 WHO declared virus had been  eradicated • Koch’s postulates: o The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering  from the disease, but shouldn’t be found in healthy animals o The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown  in pure culture o The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a  healthy organism o The microorganism must be re­isolated from the inoculated, diseased  experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific  causative agent Bacteria • Listeria monocytogenes > listeriosis • Salmonella enteriditis > food poisoning Viruses • Need a host cell • Human immunodeficiency virus > AIDS • Influenza virus > flu Fungi • Pneumocystis carinii > opportunistic infections • Candida albicans > thrush and more severe infections Parasites • Schistosoma mansoni > helminth worm • Trypanosome brucei > protozoan Immunity • Immunity > the quality or state of being immune, a condition of being able to  resist a particular disease o We develop immunological memory so we can fight it quickly the next  time we get it • Immune system > tissues, cells, molecules make up the system that protects us  against antigens (lymph nodes – swollen glands – that house all of immune cells • Antigen > component/determinant of the pathogen that the immune system  recognizes as being foreign = anti­toxins • After clearance of the infection and clearance of antigen, person becomes immune • Humans (vertebras) have adaptive immunity b/c we need it to deal with  environment • Consequences of having no adaptive immunity system o Mutations can affect person o Bubble boy was born without a natural immunity system – died at 12 due  to non­screened bone marrow transplant (Severe Combined  Immunodeficiency Syndrome) • Antibiotic properties of Pennicilium were described by Tyndall o Fleming discovered and implemented the use of Penicillin • Immune system o Cellular immunity > Mechnikov – the ability for human cells, when  confronted
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