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09Do not recognizd peptide antigen presented by mhc class one or tworecognize lipid antigen presented by CD1 one particular isoform of CD1called CD1D Do not trigger autoimmunity Limited limited TCR repertoireunique TCR alpha chainsequence all alpha chains in bodysame Limited diversity on beta sidein humans only one v beta chain 11 mouse can only use some of 20 or so in genomeVERY RESTRICTED TCR repertoireFunctionsvery fast in matter of minutes to hours days for TCR can produce cytokines and chemokinesCan be protective or deleterious functionsbecause of large array of functions seem to be able to in vivo to selectively produce on type of cytokines but not otherunknown how achieve thisCD1dmust have something in binding groove otherwise cannot fold properly cannot go to cell surfaceFit with self lipids large collection ofin steady state do not respond to this lipidotherwise autoimmunity Two different modes of activation 1antigen presenting cell 2lipids contained in these bacteriacapturedexpressed at surfacelead to activation of NK t cells NK te cells can rely only on signal one to be activateddo not necessarily need signal 3 or simtulatory moleculesstimulation of TCR alone is sufficient 1self lipids less efificent than foreign lipids leading to activation ERGO need additional signals cytokine production by apcs trigger stimulation of TLRnecessary By controlling the set of lipids self lipids presented naturally at surface of APC by infection way potentially to regulate activation of cells NK T cells only one example of such nonpeptide reactive T cells Mice only have one CD1d humans more complexhave cd1 d isoform molecules that can present via type of lipidso more lipidreactive t cells Mr1 is another MHC class one moleculedo not know kind of antige presnted to T cellsactivate T cell population called MAIT cellsprimarily identified in mucosa in gut prominent in circulating bloodMAI cells like NK te cellshave also restricted TCR These cells more important than originally thought Immune cell surface receptors Most of time changes go to nucleusmodify gene expressionsecond target is cytoskeletonchange shape size motilitymobility Polarized release of granules occur by rearrangement of actin cytoskeletoncytotoxic Signal transduction Antigens and ligands are reocgnized outside cell by recpeotrsneed to transduce signals from out to inside cell
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