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Department
Immunology
Course
IMM250H1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Jan 26part IIPAMPmolecules generally only produced by microbial pathogensalso essential for survival and pathogenicity of microbeso microbe cannot evolve away from these molecules recognized by innate immune system Invariant Ex Viruses express molecues that show huge variability that result in adapative immune responses having specificity for one strain but not other strainsthese are not good targets for PRR because they exhibit change PAMPmolecules generally only produced by microbial pathogensalso essential for survival and pathogenicity of microbeso microbe cannot evolve away from these molecules recognized by innate immune system Invariant Ex Viruses express molecues that show huge variability that result in adapative immune responses having specificity for one strain but not other strainsthese are not good targets for PRR because they exhibit change Some receptors are secreted and they function as toxinsbind to surface of the pathogen and that binding results in subsequent phagocytosisfaciliatte phagocytosis of these pathgoens by macrophageslike manna binding lectinreleased from liver in response to bacterial infection Collectin moleculesparticular carobhydrate linkages expressed in pathogenic world but not in higher organisms Phagocytic cellslike macrophages express receptors that recognize patternsmannose receptors that recognize bacteiral carbohydratefaciliate phagocytosisreceptor exprssed on macrophagesAlso scavenger receptors that bind to anionic polymersfound on pathogens Sialic acid on normal cells sheields slef molecules from scavenger In addition to facilitating eliminatingalso removal of old proteins and cellas sialic acidgradually gets degraded away reveals underlying carbohydrates that can be recognized by scavenger receptors Signalling receptorsmain class to be discussed Discovery in fruit fliesmutation in molecule called TOL led to fly becoming susceptible to fungal and some bacterial infections Single gene mutation that led to susceptibility to wide range of pathogens Mostly gram negative some positive some fungicould activate TOL receptor in fruit fly One tol in fly higher organisms have more similar to tol receptors so became known as TLRstol like receptors tLR4 appear to bind to bacteiral LPSmutations in TLR4 render mice highly susceptible to bactieral infection There are family of TLRsClosely relatived to one anothersome species variation
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