INI100H1 Lecture Notes - Semicolon, Dependent Clause, Independent Clause

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17 Mar 2011
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LECTURE March 17, 2011
STUDY THE EXCEPTIONS!!! That will be the tested
Also there are no connections between the following rules they are distinct ****
Most indefinite pronouns are singular
Ex. anyone, everyone, neither, either, etc.
EXCEPTIONS:
oMore; most; any; all; none; some
oLook at the object of the preposition in this case
AGREE WITH OBJECT OF PREPOSITION
If have two objects of prepositions, then agree with the first
Subject following verb
Usually word order is SVO
oEven if reversed, verb must agree with the REAL subject
oFirst locate the main verb and then ask yourself who is doing the action to
identify the subject
Subject MAY BE A COMPOUND thus use plural
In cases of There was an A and a B
oThe verb agrees with the first item, NOT THE COMPOUND
A computer and a copier WERE
oCompound noun because have two items THUS PLURAL
oVERSUS There was a computer and a copier
Singular here because use of there and here AND the first item
was singular
Agreement with collective nouns
Considered a unit, acting in unison, TAKING SINGULAR VERBS
His family comes from K versus His family come from A, B, and C
oFrom K singular because family engaging in collective action
oFrom A, B, and C plural because family members each had individual
actions
Look at context
oIf working together as unit SINGULAR VERB
oIf doing different things PLURAL VERB
A number versus The number of
A number of X ARE
The number of X IS
oT S Elliot
oT for the; S for is
Exclusive to these constructions
Titles for works and words referred to as words
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Regardless of the title is plural or singular, one title is SINGULAR
Drawing attention to the word as a word, not what it means or represents
Fractions
Two-thirds of X = VERB agrees with X
Agreeing with object of preposition
2/3 of the audience IS here if interpreting audience as a singular collective
oBut if interpreting the audience as individuals, then use ARE
2/3 of the jury is in consensus
oIS because talking about one part of the jury, that is agreeing
2/3 of the jury ARE not in consensus
oARE because there are different opinions in the group
Money
Singular if specified the sum
Plural if the sum is vague
Nouns ending in ics
Singular when referring to field of study
Otherwise, plural
As well as
SINGULAR if have two nouns joined by as well as
, as well as A, then use singular
oCommas take the A out of the equation, makes it less important
oWithout commas, can be plural
A + B = plural
Making it a compound like using and
But singular verb is also allowed
Relative pronouns: who, which, that
If these are used to be the subject, then verb should agree with noun that the
relative pronoun refers to
…students who study.
No more grammar, now rhetorical
Choosing the right verb
A single-word verb is often more forceful and formal than a 2 or 3-word verb
Avoid phrasal verbs
Overusing be
Clutters up the predicate
Less active
WILL BE TESTED:
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Document Summary

Also there are no connections between the following rules they are distinct *** * exceptions: more; most; any; all; none; some, look at the object of the preposition in this case. If have two objects of prepositions, then agree with the first. usually word order is svo: even if reversed, verb must agree with the real subject, first locate the main verb and then ask yourself who is doing the action to identify the subject. subject may be a compound thus use plural. In cases of there was an a and a b : the verb agrees with the first item, not the compound. A computer and a copier were : compound noun because have two items thus plural, versus there was a computer and a copier . singular here because use of there and here and the first item was singular. considered a unit, acting in unison, taking singular verbs.

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