INI 115Y terms #1.docx

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Innis College Courses
Corinn Columpar

INI 115Y: INTRODUCTION TO FILM TERM TEST STUDY AID: LIST OF IMPORTANT TERMS Myriam Michel (Note: all definition starting with a * is not on the Exam. Footnote at the very end.) Preproduction: The phase of filmmaking that prepares for production on the basis of a screenplay, design, and financing. Production: One of the tree branches of film industry: the process of creating the film. (The shooting phase) Postproduction: The phase of film production that assembles the images and sounds into the finished film. (Picture editing, special effects, sound editing, special versions) Filmic convention: Elements that are common to a movie (narrators, music, sound, setting, camera shot) 1 *Film form: The overall system of relationships among the parts of a film: Function: The role or effect of any elements within film form. (Living in Oblivion: color changes, which represents the personality of characters In the Mood for Love: repetition of 3 types of music) Similarity and repetition (parallelism/motif): An element in a film that is repeated or similar in a significant way. (Living in Oblivion: repetition of dream sequence and similarity with slate In the Mood for Love: use of objects like smoke, telephone, clocks) Difference and variation: The return of an element with notable changes within film form. (Living in Oblivion: each of the takes (x4) get screwed in the first dream, and so differs In the Mood for Love: Taxi scene, Ms Chow’s workplace) Development: The patterning of similar and different elements during the progression of the film. (Living in Oblivion: the representation of two dreams and then having them engaging in making/filming a dream) Unity/disunity: The degree to which film’s part relate or not systematically to one another and provide motivations for all the elements included. 2 Narrative: A chain of event linked by cause and effect and occurring in time and space. Three-act structure: Turning points from the beginning >> equilibrium; to the middle >> disequilibrium; to the end >> equilibrium’. (In the Mood for Love: Mr Chow and Ms Chang become aware of each other’s knowledge: their spouses are cheating on them >> they decide to end the relationship >> incomplete closure) Story: Entire narrative of the film, including event depicted and inferred, what we construct by the plot provided (Citizen Kane: from the parents giving Kane away as a child and the burning of the sled) Plot: Event as they occur or are presented in the film, what we see and hear directly. (Citizen Kane: around 65 years, from the sled to Kane’s death) Diegesis: The world of the film’s story (non-diegetic music/things not included) Narrative time: Order: How the sequence in which chronological events of the story are arranged in the plot. Use of flash-forward or flashback. (Citizen Kane: begins with Kane dying, and then mostly in chronological order until the end with a few back and forth in time Pulp Fiction: starts with the robbery at the Diner and ends with the same/rest of the Diner scene) Frequency: The number of times one action is shown, redefining its significance. (Citizen Kane: Kane’s time at the inquirer in shown at first and explained several times later on) Duration: The time presented in the plot vs. the story. Usually duration of plot> completely controlled environment, the figures and camera movements are completely choreographed and controlled = limited since camera can’t do ELS; and very artificial. Alice in Wonderland: a lot done on sets >> use of green screens and figures; synthetize setting made real with technology. Dogville: set. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari: set >> externalise internal states (rooftops). All the President’s Men: set >> looks like a real location (bureau and work space)) On location: (Breathless: deep space, very spontaneous; location is more realistic and naturalistic in feel Les Parapluies de Cherbourg: location >> looks fake and like a set) Quality of light: Hard lighting: Illumination that creates sharp-edged shadows. Soft lighting: Illumination that avoids harsh bright and dark areas, creating a gradual transition from highlights to shadows. Direction of light: It shapes the figure >> frontal, back, side, top, and under lighting. Source of light: Key light (primary light source): Very bright illumination. Fill light (primary light source): A source less bright and soften deep shadows in a scene. Three-point lighting: A common arrangement using three direction of light on a scene: from behind the subject (backlighting), from one bright source (key light), and from a less bright source balancing the key light (fill lighting). High-key lighting: Illumination that creates comparatively little contrast between the light and dark areas of the shot. Shadows are fairly transparent and brightness by fill light. Low-key lighting: Illumination that creates strong contrast between light and dark areas of the shot, with deep shadows and little fill light. Stylization and individualization in acting: Movies can be highly choreographed, or more naturalistic. (Ex: comedies and silent film >> stylised >> exaggerated performance) Symmetrical, balanced, and unbalanced composition Deep-space composition: Arrangement so that there is a considerable distance between the plane (“layer”) closest to the camera 1nd the one furthest away. Any or all of these planes may be in focus. (Citizen Kane 3 plane image ) Shallow-space composition: Staging the action in relatively few planes of depth. Formality: In staging, the position of figures so that they face the viewer. th (Personna: when the little boy looks at faces the camera >> breaking of the 4 wall) 4 *Cinematography: A general term for all the manipulation of film strip by the camera in the shooting phase and laboratory in the development phase. Shot: One uninterrupted image. Scene: A segment in a narrative film that takes place on time or space (usually multiple shots). Shot ≤ Scene (Touch of Evil: shows how a Shot > Scene) *Sequence: Designated, large segment of a film, involving one complete stretch of actions (=scene) Scene ≤ Sequence Contrast: The difference between the brightest and the darkest area within the frame >> high-contrast and low-contrast (more greyish) cinematography Chiaroscuro: Very high contrast effect. Extremely dark and light region within the image. Saturated color: Of the highest intensity of hue (tint), free from admixture of white. Desaturated color: Formed by mixing a color of the spectrum with white. Underexposure and Overexposure: Insufficient or excessive exposure. Fast-motion: Fewer frame per second (>24) than the projection rate, the screen action will look speed up. (Requiem for a Dream: fast-forward during party in apartment) Slow-motion: More frame per second shot, the action will look slower. (In the Mood for Love: Ms Chow and Mr Chang pass by each other coming/going from the noodle shop. Picnic at Hanging Rock: 3 girls in white on rocky hill in slow-motion >> dream like effect) Wide-angle lens: A lens of short focal length that affect a scene’s perspective by creating an illusion of depth and distorting figures; character seems further from the camera and the movement back/forth seem a lot faster. Normal lens: A lens that shows object without severely exaggerating or reducing the depth of the scene’s plane. Telephoto lens: A lens of long focal length that affect a scene’s perspective by flattening and reducing space; movement seem very slow Zoom lens: A lens with a focal length that can be changed during a shot. Renaissance perspective: Makes a 2D image look 3D >> illusion of depth. All the lines converge to a vanishing point, and the background plane is smaller than the foreground plane. Depth of field: A range of distances within which object can be in sharp focus. (Citizen Kane 3 plane image ). Deep focus: A use of the camera lens and lighting that keeps objects in both close and distant planes in sharp focus. Selective focus: Focused on only one plane and letting the other planes blur. Rack focus: Shifting the area of sharp focus from one plane to another plane during a shot. Superimposition: The exposure of more than one image on the same film strip or in the same shot. (Dog Star Man: Prelude: superimposition of images and light) Mask: An opaque screen placed in the camera or printer that blocks part of the frame off and changes the shape of the image, leaving part of the frame a solid color. Iris: A round, moving mask. (The Mothering Heart: women and her baby is in focus using an iris) Split-screen imagery: The screen is split into different imagery to let us see different scenes at the same time. (Pillow Talk) Angle of framing: The position of the frame in relation to the subject it shows: above it, looking down (a high angle); horizontal, on the same level (a straight-on angle); below it, looking up (low angle). (How They Get There: shoe flying from a low angle) Canted framing: A view in which the frame is not level; either the right or the left side is lower than the other, causing object in the scene to appear slanted out of an upright position. (Meshes of the Afternoon: stair case?) Shot scale: Extreme long shot: The human figure is lost or tiny. (Ex: Landscape, bird’s-eye view of cities, etc.) Long shot: The human figure more prominent, but background still dominates. Medium long shot: Human figure framed from about the knees up. Medium shot: Human figure framed from waist up. Medium close-up: Human figure framed from the chest up. Close-up: Shot showing just the head, hand, feet or a small object. Extreme close-up: Shot singling out a portion of the face or isolate an object. Pan: A camera movement with the camera body turning to the right of left; mobile framing that scans the space horizontally. (How They Get There and The Conversation) Tilt: A camera movement with the camera body swiveling upward or downward on a stationary support; mobile framing that scans the space vertically. (The Magnificent Ambersons) Tracking shot: A mobile framing that travels through space forward, backward, or laterally (right/left). (How They Get There and The Shinning) Crane shot: A shot with a change in framing accomplished by placing the camera above the subject and moving through the air in any direction. (Singing in the Rain) Hand-held camera: The use of the camera operator’s body as a camera support. (Y tu Mamá También) Reframing: Short panning or tilting movements to adjust for the figures movement, keeping them onscreen or centered. (How They Get There) Long take: A shot that continues for an unusual lengthy time before the transition to the next shot (<30s) (Touch of Evil or Rope by Hitchcock which is only 11 shots) 5 *Editing: (1) In filmmaking, the task of
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