Tuesday October 15 - FILM LECTURE.docx

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Innis College Courses
Corinn Columpar

Tuesday October 16, 2012 – FILM LECTURE Today’s topic: Editing Things to bear in mind: editing, which governs relation of one shot to the next, can be seen as an additive and subtractive process. Additive: It strings together diverse shots together the shots of a film. Subtractive: It allows each shot to replace the shot that precedes it. Editing is a procedure that does not affect the content of the image. It has no influence on the actual material that will appear on the screen. Editing influences the structure of the material presented. The Khoolishov effect: has to do with idea that a film performance gets constructed through not only the actor’s performance but also the way an actor’s performance is paired with other images. Here, editing can help create meaning by producing a context. Agenda:  Types of transitions  Dimensions of film editing  Continuity editing and its alternatives Types of transitions: Editing allows a transition from one shot to another. Transitions can occur abruptly or slowly. Most common transition = the straight cut also known as cut which is an instantaneous switch from one shot to another. Straight cut = most popular type of cut. All other types of transition allow a more gradual type of movement from shot 1 to 2. We can have fade-ins or fade-outs. They do not need to be paired by they often are. Straight cuts and fades denote a diff passage of time. Straight cuts used within various scenes that make up a sequence. Fade-out fade-in combination used to signify a long passage of time has occurred between 2 shots that are joined. The fade does not have to happen to and from black (to and from white is the second most popular type of fade). Other transition = dissolve (or cross-fade) which is when the screen never blackens completely and the images fade into each other. There is a moment of superimposition (we shot both shots simultaneously). Fourth type of transition = wipe. A wipe draws attention to itself, it is hard not to notice. For a wipe, an image is replaced by another with a boundary line. Last transition involves the iris: the iris-in and the iris-out. In iris-in: image increases form a pinpoint to a full screen while the iris-out is the contrary. Iris-in ushers us into action while iris-out takes us away. Dimensions of film editing: Editing creates relationships between successive shots in 4 ways: graphically, rhythmically, spatially and temporarily.  Graphically: We can have graphic repetition that emphasizes differences or similarities between 2 shots (ex: In Hitchcock’s Strangers on a Train, at the beginning). Graphic match: deliberately emphasizes graphic relation constructed through editing. For example, if we have a smoothness of action across different shots/edits, we have graphic match. Or we can have the graphic properties of shot 1 that match the graphic properties of shot 2 due to geometric shapes in image.  Rhythmic relation between shots: These determine a film’s tempo or pace. Series of relatively brief shots create a quick pace. If shots long, we feel there is a less quick pace. If shots uniform, the sequence will feel evenly pace. Also, if shots not uniform, we have a feeling of uncertainty. We can have shots that gradually get shorter or longer as action progresses. If shots get shorter, we can have tension that mounts until we reach a climax.  Spatial relations: What editing allows for is the creation of spaces that have absolutely no correlation with reality, that don’t exist in reality. We can create synthetic spaces through editing (= creative geography). We can remake the work with film. Filmmakers exploit creative geography is by editing together interior and exterior places by making them seem as if they are continuous (ex: we can film the outside of an apartment on location but all interior scenes are filmed in a studio location). Editing can create illusion of contiguity.  Temporal relations: Certain editing techniques allow plot to be different from the story. It is still possible for elements from other times to be inserted in the present (flashbacks or flash forwards are possible). Films always compress time of story. Editing allows to streamline story. Material often ellited (it is excised). Less common is shots where we can elongate the time in a film (make moments longer than they should be like in slow motion shots). Overlapping editing: extending duration of events by way of editing. We can also do overlapping editing by repeting an event in its entirety. Editing can also affect temporal relation through cross-cutting (cutt
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