Tuesday October 9 FILM LECTURE.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Innis College Courses
Corinn Columpar

Tuesday October 9, 2012 – FILM LECTURE Today’s topic: Cinematography Just as mise-en-scene employs elements originally found in the theatre, the cinematographic properties derive largely from photography. Film involves duration in a way that photography can’t. We want to: 1. Identify techniques associated with cinematography 2. Think how cinematography interacts with other elements in a film. Three words we want to distinguish: scene, shot, sequence. Shot: it is one uninterrupted image (that which lies between to edits) Scene: a segment in a narrative film that takes place in one time and place (scene can be distinguished from shot and sequence). Usually shot is smaller than scene – a scene is usually made up of multiple shots. Sometimes, we can have a scene rendered in a single shot. What is incredible rare: when a single shot contains more than one scene. Sequence: a single stretch of action or a portion of a film of a varying size. A sequence can include from one to many scenes. A sequence is not as delimited or defined as a shot or scene. Opening sequence of “Touch of Evil” = most celebrated shot by cinematographers and film enthusiasts. Shows the profound contributions cinematography can be to establishing look, feel, rhythm and flow of film as well as relaying info that is important to the narrative. Mise-en-scene and cinematography can be coordinated as we can see in shot. Cinematography serves narrative purpose of film as well as to style of film. Shot took a very long time to film. This is a good example of a prolonged shot and a prolonged sequence. Defining characteristics of the shot:  Photographic qualities  Framing  Duration 1. A shot’s photographic qualities: determines how the camera renders what it films. Different lenses, filters, filming processes will all render diff shots. Range of tonalities:  Range of tonalities: How finely detailed an image is, how vibrant or saturated or contrasted an image’s color is. We can think about film stock (different film stocks give a different type of image – ex: In Kane, different film stocks where used for filming the news reel and the rest of the film. Using a film stock of a lower gage helped give an impression of simulated newsreel). Rate of exposure: We vary how much light comes into the camera (ex: We can let little light in and have an image that is very dark, or we can let a lot of light in and have overexposure -> abundance of light is allowed to pass through the lens, it is blown out). We can also use filters in order to create different types of light and different qualities to the image  Speed of motion: Speed at which film is shot and subsequently project. It is crucial that a continuity between speed at which an image is shot matches speed at which it is projected. Old films appear sped up because they were shot at 16 – 20 fps being projected at 24 fps -> actions appear sped up. Sometimes, films deliberately shoot scenes at different speeds than speed at which they will be projected. For slow motion, we shoot at a faster rate than the one at which it will be projected. Slow motion usually creates poetic imagery, affects us emotionally in a profound way. But it can also be used to invoke the supernatural (ex: Picnic at Hanging Rock -> all images of blond girls climbing up rock are slowed down, images which are intercut by shots of brown haired girl who is at a normal pace). Fast motion = shooting at a slower pace than 24 fps (ex: Requiem for a Dream -> film attempts to give us a vantage on the characters’ experiences). We can clarify differences between mise-en-scene and cinematography while looking at speed of motion. The “what” of mise-en-scene is always at the service of the “how” of cinematography. Cinematography has power to completely transform what the camera captures.  Perspective: The first thing the camera lens determines is the perspective. Renaissance technique: Trying to create an illusion of depth, to create a 3- D impression from a 2-D image. Renaissance perspective became a standard of painting and art during the Renaissance. Before, we were more concentrated on contents of image, the more an object was important the bigger it was. During Renaissance however, we try to introduce perspective -> become more realistic. Most camera lenses are ground to reproduce Renaissance perspective -> our expectations of cinema is to be realistic. Most cinematographers want to represent the world as we experience it. Some cinematographers reject this however (ex: The Text of Light by Stan Brakhage -> He filmed an entire film through a lens made of a glass hotel ashtray, he wanted us to experience the film in a different way). Some cinematographers use different lenses (which differ in their focal length – measured in millimeters). Normal lenses have a focal length of 35-50 mm. Wide-angle lenses create a distorted/enhanced sense of depth (stretches space) and have shorter focal lengths while Telephoto lenses, which magnify events or objects at a distance (but they squash planes in an image – can no longer distinguish foreground, background…), possess longer focal lengths. With Telephoto lenses (shorten sense of depth in a shot), we don’t really have a sense of what space is anymore. We can also use a zoom lens which can change its focal length over the course of a single shot. There are a wide variety of lenses at disposal of the cinematographer. Lenses can distort spatial relations to some degree. Lenses also contribute to a shot’s depth of field (= what is in focus when we look with a lens). The depth of field can vary between deep focus (when the foreground, middle ground and back ground are all in focus) and selective focus (when only one or a limited number of pla
More Less

Related notes for INI100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.