INI215Y Lecture Week 14.docx

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Innis College Courses
Charlie Keil

INI215Y Lecture Week 14 1/14/2013 10:13:00 AM Lecture II-2: International Sound Adoption & Conversion Lecture Structure: 1) Introduction: Sound as an Agent of Change 2) Adoption & Conversion within the American Film Industry i) Altered Production Practices ii) Changes to Exhibition 3) International Adoption & Conversion i) Sound and the International Market ii) Changes to International Film Style & Theoretical Opposition to Sound Introduction: Sound as an Agent of Change Focusing on adoption & conversion, our questions will address the nature of the changes introduced. Two broad areas of inquiry: adoption & conversion within the American film industry: altered production practices changes to exhibition sound within the international context (including positions on sound from European theorists) Adoption & Conversion within the American Film Industry Sound conversion was a comprehensive process, affecting virtually every aspect of production.  Introduced New pieces of equipments  Improved existing equipments  Rendered speaking performers  And.. businesses Hollywood was forced to bring in sound technicians from outside the realm of filmmaking. In studying the conversion process, we will adopt a two-pronged approach:  the problems sound created / the solutions devised;  how the solutions aided in the bending of sound to established classical principles. i) Altered Production Practices A conceptual problem underwrote most decision-making: what should movie sound sound like?’  What should the aural experience should be?  Emphasis on noise reduction that will allow ease audience The shift from an allegiance to fidelity to an emphasis on legibility leads the industry to focus on post-production (a shift from replication to reconstruction).  We will create the ideal version of what occurred on the sonic level o Note that this is same way that Hollywood did on visual level  Reconstruct sound Microphones: problem: WE condensor mikes were ultrasensitive and omnidirectional solution: ribbon mikes (1931); booms (1931-32) The Filming Situation: problem: uncontrolled environments challenged sound recording equipment solution: soundstages  strict monitoring of sound was essential Lighting: silent era: arc lights + Cooper Hewitt mercury vapour lights sound era: Mazda lamps (incandescent lighting; aka “inkies”)  Problem: arc lights made noise. Cooper Hewitts hummed. Lights also produced blueish hue.  Solution: incandescent lighting – silent, energy efficient, but produced intense heat. Cameras: silent era: Bell & Howell sound era: Mitchell – noiseless (according to ad)  put cameras inside icebox. But Icebox was immobile. (cant dolly, track, etc) housing: icebox/booth  blimping mobility: MOS shooting  Rotambulator (1932)  Meat out sound. (Without Sound)  Rotambulator was a 700 pound equipment (dolly + crane)
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