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University of Toronto St. George
Innis College Courses
Vikki Visvis

LECTURE March 102011 United States Post Office = title as a unit no possessive at end of States N.B. If there are multiple interpretations and each has different grammatical marking, then make a choice and then leave a marginal note to indicate which situation is assumed here. CONTRACTIONS Its is IT IS Its is possessive *** GERUNDS Verb with ing ending THAT IS USED AS A NOUN (sbj, object, etc.) The staff objects to Kevins smoking o Possessive needed o Smoking is a noun here o In other words, the smoking of Kevin ***** Can act as subject; direct object (which answers who or what after an action verb); indirect object (answers to whom or for whom the verb is doing) Also as a prepositions object o Tricky here also since preposition use can be idiomatic o Relates noun or pronoun to another word As a predicate noun after a linking verb o Linking verb is usually forms of be Connect subject with noun or adjective in the predicate o Ex. The cat is black The predicate is is black Linking verb is is o Ex. G is an accountant An accountant is the predicate noun because it is in the predicate part of the sentence NB. Action verb ex. runs, jump, plays Versus Linking verb to be, to seem, to appear, etc. Link subject part of sentence to the predicate part of sentence As an appositive to any other noun o Says something again using different words o Can be short or long combination of words o Often bracketed by commas, hyphen (in this case, em-dash = long dash, two hyphens together, no space between word and the line) As nouns in possessive case functioning as adjectives o Prepositional phrase can act as an adjective Whose coat is it?
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