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Lecture

05 - October 8, 2013.docx

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Department
Linguistics
Course
JAL328H1
Professor
Danny Harvey
Semester
Fall

Description
JAL328 October 8, 2013 KOREAN AND JAPANESE QUIZ DEBRIEF: The letter mark is what is important Out of 25, but rather out of 24.5; because cuneiform, C is pointing at ponogram but it was a weird phonogram that is a root – question five out of 2.5 Average C LECTURE Need to study the Korean PDF – know the symbols IPA values on the chart Legacy of Classical Chinese Korean and Japanese lie within Chinese cultural area Diffusion from China into neighbouring countries – Korea picked up writing system, loan words – and Japan either picked up this from Korea or China directly Classical Chinese was the international language of East Asia years ago Writing in Korea Hanja are Chinese characters, Korean term for Chinese characters Hangeul is the term for letters specifically designed by and for Korean Chinese was the literary language up until relatively recently th Started around 4 century Language of this new knowledge in Chinese – Confucius, Buddhism Korea famous for being the originator of metal movable type but before, this wooden printing board – carved in by relief the page of the book – press board against paper to print Temple that contains one book – shelves contain all the wooden boards – one per page This book was believed to ward off Mongol invasion – supposed to be anti-invasion powers Emergence of vernacular writing th Chinese writing comes in around 4 century; 300 years later, Korean writing their own materials How to write names? Chinese set of characters won’t have specific ysmbols for Korean names Language from one family that writing system devised for; spreading this system to anther language family Where writing systems change dramatically One choice is to take symbol that already exists and has a pronounciation and extend the phonology to the name Take a symbol that sounds like it and extends it phonoogically – stripped of original meaning Other option is to take meaning of symbol and apply to native term Basically: Either shift phonology or the semantics Mapping Chinese to Korean Correspondence between the two languages could not be more different In Korean, agglutinative – can have several suffixes at ends of words; a morpheme itself can have lots of syllables As agglutinating language, can have lots of suffixes without symbols – particles and functional worlds – some occur in every single sentence and important yet there are no characters to represent them, if were to use Chinese to write English First to write all the lexical roots with ideograms Topical, do – extra information that couldn’t be written in Chinese Change word order – verb final Next is to try some symbols that can represent grammatical and functional information – pick a symbol and have that represent these extra morphemes Accusative suffix – plural use another – no longer associated with original Chinese meaning s- just borrowing phonologically VERY SIMILAR TO AKKADIAN – keep nouns and verbs in original script, add in phonological information by repurposing old characters Idu is changing word order Simplifying idu – further into gugyeol – idu phonograms are even further simplified If suffixes and articles were complicated, made simpler – also to let you know how to pronounce hanja words that you didn’t know how to pronounce Purpose – to help people to read classical Chinese – no urge to replace classical Chinese as literary language all together because everyone already knew how to read it Bit of a bother to read Hangeol – idu was dead in the water – it existed, but nobody was writing massive histories in Korean lanauge until Hangeol comes along King Sejong – commissioned a book – from the very beginning a way to teach everyone how to read and write – not like idu that helps someone already literate with Chinese – but rather to be more universal Committee effort – lots of evidence that King was very involved in decision making Symbols – divide everything into consonants and vowels Choose three base symbols – these are derived from Taoist philosophy Sun is a dot; earth is horizontal line; person is vertical line All vowels can be made up of sun, earth, and people in different combinations Vowel harmony – divided vowels into yin and yang vowels –a word with yin vowels in root must have yin vowels in suffix Ja – two suns All other vowels in system thought of a diphtohngs – two vowels joined ot make single sound Approach learning this as breaking down the vowels into component parts and learning how they’re put together or memorize each one separately Shape of consonants – do not follow philosophilcal concepts, but rather point of articulation, tongue position Modifications to consonatnt symbols K – back of tongue – if aspirated, add another line to the top, get “kh” Four base symbols and add lines to say progressively less sonorant “ang” in coda position – end of syllable – No consonant at beginning of syllable – pure circle These two were merged into one symbol – circle is nothing at beginning of syllable and ang at end of the syllable Ex. “h” in English L Tense consonants – written twice – Building a syllable Korean is not an alphabet – all of these symbols are components and they must be put together in specific format to be read properly In Chinese, one syllable, one symbol, one morpheme – this is the borrowed system This was kept in the indeigneous Korean system K and a – written as one character – squished into one square Consonant in coda – goes on bottom of square; onset consonants at the top PRACTISE HOW THE SYMBOLS ARE PUT TOGETHER Position of components /son/ - s at top; o in middle; n in bottom If vowel has horizontal line, then WRITE onset, vowel, coda vertically from up to down If vowel has person in it, then write it in upside down triangle shape – like “V-shape” Shape should be most pleasing to idea that all symbols should be in square box If have double vowels – h
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